Genel Application Of Photointerpretation To Geology ( Fototoloji ) ingilizce İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 46 6. APPLICATION OF PHOTOINTERPRETATION TO GEOLOGY Two types of geologic information can be obtained from aerial photographs: structural and lithologic. The kinds and amounts of information that could be obtained from aerial photographs depend primarily on: 1) type of terrain, 2) climatic environment, 3) stage of the geomorphic cycle. 1. Areas underlain by sedimentary rocks yield more information than areas underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks. Because the sedimentary rocks have strongly differing physical character- istics, whereas plutonic rocks are relatively homogeneous over wide areas. Metamorphic rocks may show the least amount of information from aerial photographs. 2. Arid and semi-arid regions will yield the greatest amount of geologic information compared to the tropical regions. The arid and semi-arid regions might also show a greater number of significant plant-rock associations than other climatic areas, because weathered material in the arid and semi-arid regions is not excessively leached and a close relation of soil to parent rock formation exists. As a result of difference in vegetation growing on soils, closely associated to the bedrock, mapping of different rock types is possible in these areas. This association is less developed in tropical areas where rainfall is abundant. Aerial photographs yield more structural information in areas where vegetation cover is dense and superficial deposits is wide-spread. 3. During the mature stage of geomorphic cycle, at which time streams show their greatest adjustment to and reflection of structure, the amount of structural information will be greater. Factors affecting the photographic appearance of rocks Most photogeologic studies are designed to compile a geologic map of lithologic units and structures. The factors which affect the photographic appearance of a rock: 1. Climate 2. Vegetation cover 3. Soil cover 4. Absolute rate of erosion 5. Relative rate of erosion 6. Color and reflectivity 7. Composition 8. Physical characteristics 9. Depth of weathering 10. Structure 11. Texture 12. Factors inherent in the type and conditions of photography. Use of aerial photographs in geology 1. Outline the structure and structural relationship in an area 2. Outline the stratigraphic succession 3. Preparation of a geologic map 4. Measurements of stratigraphic sections 5. Measurements of dip and strike and thickness of formations 6. Inferences about rock types present in the area. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 47 6.1. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (INTERPRETATION) The photogeologic interpretation of the planar structures like bed, foliation, joint and fault is termed as structural analysis. 6.1.1. Bedding In structural analysis, to follow a resistant bed or complex is usually not difficult. The position of a bed in relation with the horizontal is called an ATTITUDE. The position of a tilted bed can be determined by the DIP and the STRIKE. The DIP is the direction of the maximum slope. It is the angle between the surface plane of bedding at its greatest value in degrees and the horizontal. It is a line the runoff takes flowing down the bedding plane. The horizontal line which can be constructed at right angles to the dip direction is the STRIKE. It can be said that the strike line is parallel to the intersection of the bedding plane with a horizontal surface (Figure 6.1). Figure 6.1. Relation between strike-dip-bedding plane and talus. The talus tends to reduce the angle of sloping. E-E is the edge or rim of a hard bed, usually marked on aerial photographs. In the aspect of photointerpretation, the beds can be classified into three groups on the basis of dip amount: 1. horizontal and gentle dipping beds, 2. medium dipping beds, 3. steep and vertical dipping beds. Horizontal and gentle dipping beds. In deed, there are no perfectly horizontal beds. So, the beds with a very gentle dipping slope, not exceeding one degree is considered to be horizontal. Beds, having one to five degree dip amount are named as horizontal beds. Generally, alluvial deposits, terraces, talus and undisturbed deposits may display horizontal bedding. The appearance of a landscape with horizontal and low dipping beds is that of a CANYON-MESA type (Figure 6.2). The hills when isolated have the form of a flat table mountain or MESA. The valleys are deep dissected cut-in CANYONS. The slope of a mesa or sides of a canyon are step-like. The hard beds, like sandstone or limestone, form near perpendicular cliffs, the softer shales (or thin sandstone thick shale intercalations) form slopes. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 48 Figure 6.2. Relation of attitude of resistant beds to landform. Hard beds form a mesa when horizontal, a dipslope or cuesta when tilted, and a hogback when in steep attitude. Ss is a subsequent or strike controlled stream; Sf a fault controlled stream; Rs a resequent stream, and Ob an obsequent stream. The conspicuous photographic characteristics of horizontal beds are as follows: 1. The flat lying or nearly horizontal beds are easily distinguished by tonal contrast and different resistance to erosion. The tonal contrast is expressed as bands following or extending parallel to the topographic contours. They are also loop-like shaped on the aerial photographs (Figure 6.3). 2. In the case of alternating resistant and non-resistant beds slope characteristics (breaks in slope) help in recognizing each unit. 3. The drainage pattern on flat lying beds is generally dendritic unless they are controlled by joint or fault. 4. A dip of half a degree can be observed on aerial photographs unless beds are obscured or obliterated by talus or scree. 5. The land shape of canyon-mesa type topography is underlain by horizontal or flat-lying sediments. Medium dipping beds. The beds with dips ranging from 5-35 degrees are considered to be medium dipping beds. Usually the hard bed forms a more or less even sheet. The top part of this layer, when hard, will resist erosion more than a weaker cover formation like shale or marl. When this is removed, the hard layer is exposed. A slope results, showing the inclination and direction of the dipping hard bed. This landform is called a DIPSLOPE or CUESTA (Figure 6.2), the most valuable element on a photogeologic map. because it indicates the attitude of the hard bed. The dipslope or questa is an asymmetric ridge with one slope is gentle, long and agree with the dip direction of the bed. Other slope is short and steep. The longer is called the face slope, which is parallel with the dip of the hard bed, and the other is the scarp or steep slope, which inclines away from the face slope. Because the dipslope of a gentle or medium dip is attacked by erosion from two opposite quarters, the resulting watershed will shift. On the steeper slope the streams will erode with greater intensity, than on the side with a gentle slope. The divide will therefore shift gradually from the steeper slope towards the gentle or face slope until an equilibrium is reached (Figure 6.4). İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 49 Figure 6.3. Dendritic drainage patterns characteristically develop on horizontal strata and cut canyons or valleys in which progressively older rock units are exposed. As a result, the map patterns of horizontal strata parallel stream valleys and produce a dendritic pattern on the geologic map. Although topographic contour lines are not shown on all maps, the contacts of rock units of horizontal strata will parallel the contours. Escarpments and gentle slopes generally develop on resistant and nonresistant beds respectively and thus produce variations in the width of the map outcrop patterns. On steep cliffs the upper and lower contacts (as seen on the map) will be close together, whereas on a gentle slope of the same formatian the contacts will appear further apart. It is apparent, therefore, that the map width of the outcrop belts of horizontal strata is no indication of the unit's thickness. Gently dipping strata will develop the same basic outcrop pattern as horizontal beds. The contacts between rock units in gently dipping strata, when traced far enough up a valIey, however, will be seen to cross topographic contours and form a large V-shaped pattern which points in the direction in which beds dip. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 50 Figure 6.4. Recession of an escarpment. Escarpment (E) started at the initial position IPS where a strike controlled stream began to erode shake Sh2 which is overlying Ss1. R and arrow indicated direction of receding watershed. D is a dipslope of Ss2. The main photo-characteristics of medium dipping beds are as follows: 1. The dip amount, dip direction and the strike can be determined well on these beds. Such beds are the most valuable sources of information to the photogeologist. 2. The outstanding land shape developing on the medium dipping beds is the DIPSLOPE or QUESTA. 3. Where bedding is expressed by bands of differing photographic tone or by topographic breaks in slope due to the resistance of beds, the rule of V's may be applied to determine the direction of dip; that is, where the trace of a bed intersects a stream valley a V in the outcrop pattern will point the direction of dip (Figure 6.5, 6.6). F i g u r e 6 . 5 But if the direction of dip and direction of stream flow are the same and the stream has a gradient greater than the amount of dip, the case will be reverse. Steep and vertical beds. The beds having dips more than 35 degrees are considered to be steeply dipping beds. In practice, steep or vertically dipping beds are seldom indicative to which side of the ridge the bed is dipping. Dips over 65 degrees seem vertical on photographs because of stereoscopic exaggeration. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 51 Figure 6.6. When a sequence of rocks is ti1ted and truncated by erosion, the outcrop patterns will appear as bands which, on a regional basis, are roughly parallel. Important variations in details of the basic pattern are developed in areas dissected by erosion and should be carefully analyzed, for they provide important information concerning the subsurface structure. When dipping strata are traced across a valIey, a V-shaped outcrop pattern is produced which points in the direction of dip. Exception to the rule is possible if the degree of bedding dip is less than the gradient of the valIey, but such conditions are seldom encountered. The size of the outcrop pattern V is inversely proportion al to the magnitude of dip: 1. low angle dip -large V (front part of Figure) 2. high angle dip - small V 3. vertical dip - V is absent (back part of Figure) Careful examination of Figure will reveal several additional relationships basic to geologic maps: 1. Older beds dip toward younger beds unless the sequence is overturned. 2. Outcrop width depends on a. thickness of the beds b. dip of the beds (low dip maximum width) c. slope of the topography (steep slope minimum width) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 52 The main photo-characteristics of the steep and vertical dipping beds are as follows: 1. The diagnostic landshape developing on these beds is HOGBACK (Figure 6.2). Hogbacks are sharp, straight or slightly curved ridges with the two opposing slopes dipping at same angles. 2. Vertical beds are strongly eroded, worn, and often covered by talus on both sides of a hogback ridges. 3. The long axis of the hogback is parallel to the strike of the bedding. By using the long axis, one can easily determine strike direction. 4. Using the scale of the aerial photograph, the true thickness of vertical or nearly vertical bed can be measured directly without the aid of any formula. Determination of the direction of dip of inclined beds from aerial photographs 1. Dip direction is readily apparent where topographic surfaces coincide with bedding surfaces (Figure 6.7). Figure 6.7 2. Dip direction can be determined using the rule of V (Figure 6.6, 6.9). The apex of V always points the dip direction. The long and narrow V shape shows less dip amount or gently dipping beds while short and wide V shape refers medium and steep dipping beds. 3. The drainage characteristics may also be used to find the dip direction in the areas, particularly those of low relief, where beds are obscured by surfical materials or vegetation. Where the dips are gentle the relatively long tributary systems commonly flow down the face slopes, whereas short tributary systems will characterized back slopes (Figure 6.8). When the dip is steep, in other words, it is over the 45 degrees, the rule is reverse (Figure 6.10). Figure 6.8 İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 53 Figure 6.9. Relationship between outcrop pattern and type of the bed İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 54 4. Slope asymmetry may be used to find the dip direction. The gentle slope of a questa or dip slope indicates dip direction (Figure 6.10). 5. In heavily vegetated areas the tree crowns fall in the direction of slope. Figure 6.10 To interpret the lineaments resulting from the dipping beds, the following characteristics should be observed on aerial photographs: a. They have to be persistent ridges when the bed is more resistant to the erosion than the adjacent bed or rock unit. b. They have to be approximately parallel to one another. If there is an abrupt ending of this parallelism, it indicates a structural features like a fault. c. Ridges of hard beds tend to be found in groups rather than single. 6.1.2. Folded structures Sediments are deposited like pages of a book, in sheets. Sediment layers have various extensions, composed of different types of rock. Some are plastic, soft, like clays or shales; some are loose, granular, like sand and gravel; and some hard like sandstone and limestone. Layers of rock are laid down originally in a horizontal position. The process of sedimentation is continuous and may go on for ages, until it is interrupted by crustal movements. Sedimentary rocks, laid down in large basins of water, will eventually emerge from the sea and become exposed to denudation. When the horizontally deposited sedimentary sequences are compressed by the tangential pressure, which is the main force in the orogenesis or orogenic processes, they are tilted, warped, folded and fractured resulting the orogenic belts or terrain. The difference in rigidity of layers, changing direction or intensity of pressure, causes fracturing of the strata. Rigid, hard beds, like sandstone or limestone, will break up into blocks when exposed to folding movements near the surface. But beds of greater softness or plasticity like shale or clay when compressed in depth, act just like viscous fluids. Folding and fracturing are processes linked closely to each other. Since rock layers are deposited one after another, in horizontal bedding, the upper strata is the younger, the lower one the older. Evidence of stratigraphic sequence is of greatest importance in a photogeologic evolution of an area. Tectonic analysis without evidence of the age of a formation cannot be complete. In separating lithologic units on aerial photographs, the question arises continually which is older, which the younger? On areas with a low relief, dipslopes are often too İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 55 indistinctive to obtain evidence of the sequence of certain strata. When the area is folded, the cores of the fold will expose the older, the flanks and troughs the younger beds. The type or forms of the tectonic landforms and structural features depend on the intensity of tangential pressure. For example, slight tangential pressure on a horizontal strata will result in gentle warping or open folds. When the tangential pressure is high and continues, steep and overturned folds will form (Figure 6.11). Figure 6.11. Types of folds. The type depends on the intensity of tectonic pressure. An is an anticline, with crest C and anticlinal axis, AAx. The two slopes are called limbs or flanks (L). The syncline (Sy) and its axis (SAx) indicate that the structure is symmetric. When the axial plane (O-FAx) is tilted, an assymetric or overfold, will result (OF). Continuous tectonic pressure will result in a recumbent or overturned fold (RF). This fold is usually connected with an overthrust (O-T) fault. Recumbent folds may become covers or nappes in intensively folded mountainous areas. On the basis of dip amount of flanks or limbs, folds are classified into three groups, namely gentle folds, medium folds and steep folds. a. Gentle folds. The dip amount of the limbs range from 2 to about 10 degrees. Folds in this range have long gentle dipslopes. Gentle folding is of great importance to the petroleum geologist because such structures are favorable for accumulation of oil. b. Medium folds. The dip amount of the limbs range from 10 to 35 degrees. The landforms are medium grade dipslopes. Such folded belts follow orogenesis. c. Steep folds have dips from 35 to vertical. When eroded and in the steeper range, it is often not possible to construct the approximate axial part of these folds. Metamorphics are almost everywhere strongly compressed to steep folds because several orogenic movements from different directions may have worked on the strata. Areas which have undergone several phases of tectonic pressure usually show steep folds with meandering axes. The highest grade of tectonic pressure causes over-thrusting. Layers are squeezed out into sheets or nappes. There are several types and forms of folds namely, anticline and syncline. a. Anticline. Anticlines are positive folds with bedding planes dipping away from a line called the axis of the structure (Figure 6.11). The dip amount increases towards the flanks and low or horizontal on or near the axis. The axis which runs with the highest part of the fold is a theoretical plane of vertical or tilted attitude cutting the anticlinal fold at its highest part. It is, therefore, marked with a line or symbol on maps. Axes do not continue horizontally along an anticlinal fold. They plunge according to the dip of the bedding planes, and are named as plunging anticline (Figure 6.12). Anticlines are of essential importance for petroleum prospecting. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 56 Figure 6.12. Folding is one of the most common types of structural deformation and is found in complex mountain ranges and in less deformed lowlands and plateaus. A convex upward fold is referred to as an anticline and in this structure the limbs dip away from the axis. Anticlines are characterized by having the oldest rocks in the core or center. Synclines are folds which are concave upward with limbs dipping toward the axis and are characterized by having the youngest rocks in the center. In some folds the axis is horizontal but more commonly it is inclined. The inclination of the axis is referred to as plunge and is of importance in analyzing the three-dimensional aspect of the fold. Plunging folds which have been truncated by erosion form a characteristic zig-zag outcrop pattern. A plunging anticline forms a V -shaped outcrop pattern with the apex (or nose) pointing in the direction of the plunge. Plunging synclines form a similar pattern, but the limbs of the fold open in the direction of plunge. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 57 Figure 6.13. Eroded, dome-shaped structures form a roughly circular to elliptical outcrop with beds dipping away from a central area. These structures may range in size from small warps a few feet in diameter to regional features covers hundreds or thousands of square miles. As can be seen in Figure 157 the central part of an eroded dome is made up of the oldest bed with progressively younger rock units located outward from the center of the structure. Drainage patterns are helpful in interpreting domal structures because (1) they tend to form a radial pattern as streams develop on the less resistant beds and (2) streams cutting across the resistant beds permit one to apply the rule of V's to interpret the direction of dip. If the relative ages of rock units are shown on the map, a dome is readily recognized by older rocks located in the center of the structure. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 58 Figure 6.14. A structural basin, when eroded and ex- posed at the surface, displays an elliptical or circular outcrop pattern similar to that of an eroded dome. The general outcrop pattern of both structures is similar, but two major features enable us to distinguish readily a basin from a dome: (1) Younger rocks crop out in the center of a basin, whereas older rocks are exposed in the center of a dome. (2) If the structure has been dissected by stream erosion, the V in the outcrop points toward the center of a basin and away from the center of a dome. In addition, the cliff or scarp formed on the resistant rocks of a basin faces outward, and the dip slope is inclined toward the center of the structure. This is exactly the opposite of the direction in which the slope is inclined in an eroded dome. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 59 Every anticline, short or long, has a part where the beds are highest, or where, the oldest beds appear at the surface of a near level terrain. From such an area, the beds are dipping radially in all directions, and the axis shows two plunges at opposite areas away from this highest part. These types of features are called as dome due to their dome like shape (Figure 6.13). Such structural features are of great economic importance in the respect of petroleum accumulation. b. Syncline. This structure is a negative fold. The beds on a syncline dip toward the central line, the synclinal axis, which runs along the deepest part of a tectonic trough. Synclines are of many types, similar to anticline. If the axis of syncline shows two plunges at opposite areas, these features are named as basin (Figure 6.14). Synclines have usually no economic interest for the oil geologist. For the hydrologist however, synclines are important because artesian wells can be successfully drilled in synclines. 6.1.3. Structural landforms Every region of sedimentary rocks will be eroded during and after accomplished folding. Weak rock will be removed and the hard beds will remain as ridges or dipslope belts. The resulting landforms depend on the distributions of hard and weak strata. Positive forms will be mountains or ridges; negative forms will be valleys, troughs, or basins. Tectonic terrace (tectonic bench or homocline). These are incomplete anticlinal structures. They have two flanks dipping in the same direction similar to a river terraces (Figure 6.15) F i g u r e 6 . 1 5 Anticlinal mountain. The axial part can be built up by a resistant and hard formation. Such a situation is rather frequent because along an anticlinal axis, older beds crop out, which are mostly harder and more resistant than younger formations which are not too well consolidated. The core part will, therefore, remain and anticlinal mountain will result (Figure 6.16). Such anticlinal landforms are frequent in areas of thick sandstone formations or where beds of hard limestone become exposed. Anticlinal valley. When nonresistant and weak beds are exposed along an anticline and the flanks are of resistant material, the core of the fold will be carved out by subsequent stream and an anticlinal valley will result (Figure 6.16). Synclinal valley. It is a type of landform which is associated with troughs (Figure 6.17). Synclinal mountain. It is less frequent and occur when the core of the syncline is of hard rock and the older beds along the flanks are weak and removed by erosion (Figure 6.17). İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 60 Figure 6.16. Block diagram of an anticlinal mountain and a synclinal valIey. The anticline (A.Mt.) forms a ridge. A thick sandstone bed (Ss2) is overlain by a sandy shale sSh. Consequent drainage C of sandy shale character forms dipslopes (D) which however do not conform with Ss2 below. The ,watershed W, however, follows the axis of the structure. The synclinal valley (S. V.) is formed by sandstone Ss1. It forms a trough with dipslopes (D) and alluvial fill (A). The shale at the left shows a strike controlled strato subsequent river (sR). At the center, stream sR follows the scarp in a similar sense. The tributaries from the anticline are resequent streams; the steep short gullies from the scarp obsequents (O). CgI is a base coinglomerate; B is base rock. FIGURE 6.17. Block diagram of a synclinal mountain and anticlinal valIey. The beds: Ss, sandstone; Sh, sha1e;sSh, sandy shale; Lst, limestone; CgI, conglomerate; and B, basement rock. At D is a sinkhole-studded gently dipping limestone surface, with internal drainage. It forms dip- slopes (D-D). Since the anticlinal crest (AV) falls into a sandy shale, a valley is eroded by a strike controlled stream. The syncline (SM) is formed by several hard beds. It is a mesa-type fiat trough. Talus cones (Tc) fiat- tening the slope between sandstones 1 and 2, should not be confused with dipslopes. Note that shale at SM ex- presses the dip of beds. At sSh the shale is unconclusive to real dip of the complex. 6.1.4. Fractures Tectonic forces do not always cause the development of folds. Instead, the rocks may break or fracture. Faults and joints are examples of these types of deformational features. Faults Faults are the deformational features of the Earth's crust along which a measurable movement takes place (6.18). On aerial photographs fault indications have one common property: they are always straight, or slightly curved. Straightness is inherent to all breaking phenomena of the crust. This stands mainly for resistant rocks, because, weak, plastic beds are bent rather than broken. The relative straightness of a fault indication is based on the straightness of the fault plane. This plane is always somewhat irregular or slightly curved. Normal faulting displays, as a rule, straightness along a certain length (Figures 6.18, 6.19). Curved fault traces are found only in reverse or overthrust fault. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 61 Figure 6.18. Outcrop patterns of faults and Colorado Plateau Fault patterns on geologic maps are distinctive; they appear as lines or zones of displacement that abruptly offset structures and terminate contacts between formations. Thrust faults generally dip at a low angle. Because of the low-angle dip, the pattern of the fault trace is characteristically irregular and similar in many respects to the trace produced by low-dipping angular unconformities. In Figure 6.18, thrust faults are located at the base of the formations colored purple and blue. The trace of a thrust fault commonly forms a V across valleys, with the V pointing in the direction in which the fault dips. Normal and reverse faults usually dip at a high angle, so their outcrop patterns are relatively straight. Since older rocks are generally exposed on the upthrown block, the relative movement on most high-angle faults can be determined from the map relations alone. Thick, resistant sandstone formations in the Colorado Plateau commonly show the characteristics of fracture systems in remarkable detail. The sandstone formation in this area is nearly horizontal. Normal faults are shown where the surface is displaced vertically. Joint systems are accentuated by weathering and are expressed as cracks. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 62 Figure 6.19. Outcrop patterns of strike- slip faults and strike-slip faults of California In a strike-slip fault, the displacement is parallel to the strike of the fault plane. Displacement on strike-slip faults may reach several hundred miles, so rock types of very different structure and geologic characteristics may be placed side by side after prolonged periods of movement. The trend of strike-slip faults is typically straight, in contrast to the irregular trace of thrust faults and the zigzag trace of normal faults. Small slivers or slices of foreign rock bodies may be caught in the strike-slip fault zone and are commonly expressed either as elongate troughs or ridges. The lateral displacement of the crust in strike-slip faults does not produce high scarps. The fault line is, however, commonly marked by structural and topographic discontinuities, linear ridges and rivers, and offset drainage patterns. The offset drainage is usually very signifıcant, because it indicates the direction of displacement. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 63 The main indications or features, which can be distinguished on aerial photographs to determine the faults are: 1. Scarps. Morphologically, the most common landforms are fault scarps. All types of faults may cause scarps but normal faulting will be the most frequent cause of scarp forming (Figure 6.20). 2. Triangular facets. When erosion advances and cuts up the fault scarp into residual landforms, parts of the original scarp will remain and indicate the original approximate position of the fault plane (Figure 6.20). These features are named as triangular facet and found along the foot of a fault scarp, following a more or less straight line. They are found mostly on active, reactivated or young faults. 3. Block forming. Relatively elevated and depressed surfaces can form a pattern called a block mosaic. Such an area is called block faulted. These blocks are mostly connected with multiple scarping (Figure 6.19) 4. Truncation. Abrupt termination of landforms, or drainage pattern or sudden changes in photographic tone, texture along a straight line or linear feature (Figure 6.18, 6.19). 5. Trenches or linear depressions. Straight, incised narrow valleys or grabens in hard rock like igneous, dissolved cracks in limestone (Figures 6.19, 6.20) 6. Controlled drainage. Every straight, angular stream course if not strato-subsequent, should be considered fault controlled (Figures 6.19, 6.20). 7. Axial shift of structures. Right or left stepping in the fold axes indicates faulting. 8. Abrupt changes of dip on monoclines, or a sudden change of dip, strike or both, along a line. 9. Igneous features. Linear arrangement of extrusives and dikes where magma intrudes into major fractures or extrudes along them. 10. Alignment of sinkholes and vegetation, springs. 11. Tone changes along a linear feature due to vegetation or high water content. 12. Offset streams, rock units, and other linear features Figure 6.19, 6.20). 13. Lineaments. These are large scale linear features, which are the topographic expression of underlying structural features such as fault-controlled valley (Figure 6.18, 6.19, 6.20), joint controlled valleys or streams, fronts of mountain ranges, straight and narrow mountain or hill ranges, ridges (Figure 6.20), lines of isolated hills, linear igneous intrusions, and lines of volcanoes. 14. Straight boundaries of cliff coasts or straight contacts between erosional (hills) and depositional (alluvial) area. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 64 Figure 6.20. Block diagram showing landforms developed along recently active strike-slip faults. Joints Joints are also expressed as linear features, similar to faults, on aerial photographs (Figure 6.18). So, the same features or criterias which are used to detect faults on aerial photographs can be used also to detect joints. The main differences: 1. there is no displacement along the joint planes, 2. the lengths and the spaces of the linear features caused by the joints are less than that of faults. Joints in sedimentary rocks develop as regularly spaced parallel sets with equal separation. Generally two closely spaced sets form at an certain angle to each other. But in igneous rocks more than two joint sets may occur, and the separation between joints are unequal. Therefore, joint sets developed on igneous rocks may produce a criss-cross pattern. In fine grained sedimentary rocks like clay, shale and marl joints are relatively closely and regularly spaced, while they are widely spaced in coarse grained hard rocks, like sandstone and limestone. 6.1.5. Unconformities Deposition of beds in a body of water is a continuous process. Layer by layer is deposited in succession, the older covered by the younger. Such beds have parallel bedding planes and the strata are called conformable. When the deposition of sediments is interrupted, and the sedimentary rocks is lifted above water and consequently becomes exposed to erosion, an erosional surface will develop. When the depositional cycle is terminated, it will be replaced by an erosional cycle. The eroded or abraded surface may eventually sink again. A new sedimentary period will start The relationship between the old and the new deposit cycle is called unconformity. The beds of old cycle may be İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 65 tilted, broken or folded during the process or in later periods. When a following submergence is followed by a new sedimentation, the relation between the two sedimentary groups is called an angular unconformity (Figure 6.21, 6.22, 6.23). On aerial photographs, unconformities can be directly observed when the contact is along a tilted plane. When the contact is horizontal, it is usually cannot be observed, because of scree or a soil cover. Usually, the unconformity contact is an irregular plane in a horizontal rather than a tilted position. In intensely folded areas, however, the unconformity plane may become tilted or vertical and the contact may appear somewhat straight, when the topography is taken into consideration. When plotting unconformity contacts, which appear as irregular lines on photographs, care should be taken not to confuse them with fault contacts. The main character of a contact line is its irregularity. If straight lines are observed, it should be considered as a fault contact. Since the unconformity contact is seldom directly visible on aerial photographs, the contact line must be plotted between two areas of different attitudes or lithology. Angular contacts can be observed rather easily, provided no fault contact is present between two members. Erosional contacts can be plotted rather easily when marine sediments, igneous and alluvials are involved. Figure 6.21. Two types of unconformities. The formation (S) shows conform bedding C-C. Formation B is folded and angular unconform with S. Unconformity plane is at A-A. The tilted formation S became eroded, and on the eroded surface, formation T deposited hori- zontally. The contact between S and T along line E-E (the old eroded surface of S) is erosional. This is an erosional unconformity, though an angular as well. Figure 6.22. Morphologic expression of unconformities. B is a folded base rock. Supposedly homogenous, the out- cropping formatian shows a dendritic drainage. (A) denotes an angular unconformity. The outcropping sediments of S form dipslope rows. There is an erosional unconformity at E between S and horizontal terrace T. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 66 Figure 6.23. Outcrop pattern of unconformity and aerial photograph of an angular unconformity in the Montana region Angular unconformities can be recog- nized on geologic mars by interruptions, or discontinuities, in the outcrop patterns. The outcrop pattem of older structures is partly covered by younger strata, so on the geologic map, the contacts of the older structures will terminate abruptly against the patterns of the overlying younger beds. In the diagram shown here, the oldest sequence has been warped into plunging folds, eroded, and subsequently covered by a younger sequence of strata. A second period of erosion has partly removed the younger strata and exposed segments of the older folds. The angular unconformity is located at the base of the sequence of younger horizontal strata. All of the map patterns of the older strata terminate against this contact. V s in the trace of the unconformable surface indicate the direction in which the unconformity dips İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 67 6.2. LITHOLOGIC INTERPRETATION Lithological interpretation refers to the recognition of rock types from photogeological data alone, rather than from photogeological data supported by local field experience. A combination of geomorphological and structural analysis must be undertaken. Each outcrop seen on the stereomodel must be considered on its local and regional geological environment, and the final lithological interpretation must not be made until the other studies are completed. The photographic appearance of a particular rock type may be quite variable, depending especially on the climate and the amount of relief. It is not possible to establish a set of criteria for the recognition of rock types that would be applicable to all areas. However, certain lithologic information can be obtained by using certain photocharacteristics of different rocks. The following procedure may be used in lithologic interpretation: 1. Determine the climatic environment (e.g. desert, arid, semi-arid, humid, temperate, tropical), 2. Determine the type of erosional environment (e.g. active, very active, inactive), 3. Recognize and mark the bedding traces of the sediments or metasediments, 4. Recognize and mark the areas of outcrop that do not have any bedding (these may be intrusions, or horizontally bedded sediments), 5. Recognize and mark the areas of superficial cover that do not indicate bedding, 6. Re-study the bedding traces determined at (3) around fold noses and determine the approximate position of the axial traces, 7. Study the lineaments to determine whether they represent faults, dykes, joints, or combinations of these. To differentiate different lithologies, the following observations should be made on aerial photographs: 1. The photographic tone of the rock mass in relation to the neighboring rocks, 2. The resistance to erosion of the rock mass in relation to the neighboring rocks, 3. The boundary of whole rock mass, 4. The topographical expression of whole rock mass, 5. The boundaries of the individual outcrops, 6. The gully analysis, 7. The joint pattern, 8. The fault pattern, 9. The drainage pattern, 10. The vegetation cover, 11. The bedding or the relic bedding lineaments, 12. The foliation lineaments, 13. The regional geological environment. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 68 6.2.1. Sedimentary rocks Consolidated sediments The most prominent feature of sedimentary rocks is bedding. As a result of differential erosion of sedimentary rocks, beds appear as banded patterns on aerial photographs. Banding due to vegetation or soil differences expressed by topographic tone can also be used to recognize and mark the beds in absence of topographic expressions. Bedding may be most prominent in the mature stage of geomorphic cycle. However, bedding may be masked in the case of massive sedimentary rocks, such as certain sandstones, and these appear as uniform masses and similar to some igneous and metamorphic rocks. In massive limestones sinkhole develop. Table 6.1. Summary chart of sedimentary rocks (Way, 1973) Coarse grained rocks (sandstone). Porosity and permeability are variable. The individual beds are generally thin and occur interbedded with shale. Differential erosion is an important recognition factor. Cross bedding features might be observed in the photographs taken in arid regions. The joints and fissures may be visible on photographs. In spite of their porosity and permeability they develop a drainage pattern (dendritic). It is partly an internal drainage and streams often follow lines of dislocations (angular drainage). Gullies are generally short, steep, V-shaped and widely spaced. The tone is usually light gray, ferruginous types may become dark. Sandstones support little or no vegetation, less dense than on shales. In humid climates sandstone-shale are usually vegetated and cultivated. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 69 Table 6.2. Sandstone (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) Shale and similar fine grained sedimentary rocks. Shales are the most common and wide spread sediments. They exhibit dark tones, a fine-textured drainage, and relatively closely and regularly spaced joints. Dark tone of shales is due to absorbed water (but it is impervious to it). As a result of very poor permeability no internal drainage develops on shales (or unconsolidated equivalents, clays). Erosion is intense, typical drainage pattern is closely spaced tree-like (dendritic), and when steep- sloped and silty, is dendritic-parallel. Gullies in shales are long, more open with more gentle gradient than in sandy beds. In most places shales are interbedded with more or less sandy beds or sandstone. Sand content influences the drainage pattern. Strike controlled subsequent pattern may form. Faulting can rarely be observed in shales, because the fissure is soon closed and joined together by clay. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 70 Table 6.3. Shale (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) Very coarse grained rocks (conglomerate and breccia). These seldom show a great degree of permeability. Permeability depends on the grade of cementation and the type of solubility of the matrix. They are usually lenticular and almost always associated with sandstones. It is difficult to separate conglomerates from sandstones on the basis of drainage since they differ from sandstones only in the size of fragments. In deserts the surface of beds are disintegrated to gravel deposits giving a rough surface and darker tone (shadow effect). Cataclastic breccias and conglomerates occur in crush zones. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 71 Limestones have light tones with dissolution forms like rills, channels, trenches and sinkholes. Dolomite is less soluble than limestone. Different types of limestones have sinkholes different size and distribution. Fractures are broadened by solution. The drainage is internal. Marls are light in tone, have drainage patterns similar to shales depending on their clay content. In tropical regions they support dense forest vegetation. . Table 6.4. Limestone (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 72 Table 6.5. Tropical limestone, dolomite or cherty limestone (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 73 Table 6.6. Thin bedded sedimentary rocks (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 74 Table 6.7. Thick bedded sedimentary rocks (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 75 Table 6.8. Tilted sedimentary rocks (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 76 Unconsolidated sediments Most unconsolidated sediments are readily differentiated from consolidated sedimentary rocks on aerial photographs. Land-form is the significant element in recognizing surficial sediments; because many surficial deposits have diagnostic topographic form, e.g. sand dunes, alluvial fans, river terraces, eskers. In the absence of a diagnostic landform, their character can be inferred from drainage characteristics, tone, slope analysis, and related criteria. Table 6.9. Summary chart of glacial landforms (Way, 1973) Table 6.10. End moraines (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 77 Table 6.11. Drumlins (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) Table 6.12. Glacial till Thick young till; thick old till (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 78 Table 6.13. Glacial till Thin young till; thin old till (Way, 1973) Table 6.14. Eskers (humid and arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 79 Table 6.15. Summary chart of fluvial landforms (Way, 1973) Table 6.16. Delta (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 80 Table 6.17. Tidal flats (marsh, mud, sand) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 81 Table 6.18. Alluvium (fans, valley fills, continental) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 82 Table 6.19. Flood plains (Meander, covered composite) (Way, 1973) Table 6.20. Coastal plains (Young and old) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 83 6.2.2. Igneous rocks Table 6.21. Summary chart of igneous rocks (Way, 1973) Intrusive igneous rocks These can be recognized by drainage, texture, massive character of the rock, and cross-cutting relations with country rocks. Igneous rocks particularly those forming stocks and batholiths reveal a criss-cross pattern of joints. This pattern is seen in good exposure areas and it is due to the rock type and mode of origin and is independent of climate and erosional cycle. Vegetation will be more or less uniform. The rocks have rather uniform appearance in aerial photographs. Unless fracture controlled, dendritic drainage pattern will develop in large areas covered by uniform igneous masses. If the intrusion is dome shaped radial-annular drainage patterns occur. Topographic and erosional characteristics of some igneous rocks may be used in interpretation. At low altitudes in some tropical areas granite shows hummocky, rounded topography with uniform vegetation and dendritic drainage. Angular topography might be expected in high altitudes. Acidic intrusions can be differentiated by large scale rectangular jointing from the basic intrusions or relative tone may be used. But igneous mass should be mapped as an intrusion if there is not sufficient evidence. Intrusive dykes stand out as ridges or when they are less resistant than the country rock, they appear as linear depressions; these may also display distinct tonal contrast. Sills are more difficult to interpret since they are parallel to bedding. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 84 Table 6.22. Granitic forms: Linear, Dykes (Humid and Arid) (Way, 1973) Table 6.23. Granitic rocks: Large, massive(Humid and Arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 85 Extrusive igneous rocks (Lavas and pyroclastics) These might be acidic, intermediate or basic in composition. They have diagnostic landforms. Relatively young lava flows show lobate patterns of topography and vegetation and association with volcanic cones. The surface of a flow may be hummocky and irregular in comparison to the surfaces of sedimentary rocks. Basic lavas may show dark tones, whereas acidic (rhyolitic, or silicic) lavas show light photographic tones. Intermediate lavas (andesitic) have medium gray tones. Tuffs and tuffaceous clays have a dendritic surface drainage. Flow structures may be present. Vegetation is rather poor due to internal drainage. Table 6.24. Volcanic forms: Young; basaltic flows (Humid and Arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 86 Table 6.25. Fragmented tuff and bedded flows (Way, 1973) 6.2.3. Metamorphic rocks It is difficult to identify metamorphic rocks from aerial photographs because large-scale distinguishing characteristics are generally absent. It may be difficult or impossible to recognize the bedding because of physical changes in the rock units due to high pressure and/or high temperatures of the metamorphism. Structural trends obtained from aerial photographs are foliations rather than bedding. Parallel alignments of ridges and intervening low areas may reflect regional cleavage, foliation or fold axis and may suggest metamorphic rocks. In these sort of areas the occurrence of widely spaced lineations at right angles to the regional trend support the presence of metamorphic rocks. The lineations represent regional cross-joints and may be reflected in abrupt deflections of drainage along conspicuous straight stream segments of major streams or in the development of tributary streams along these joints. İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 87 Table 6.26. Summary chart of metamorphic rocks (Way, 1973) Schists are metamorphic rocks with highly foliated structures (Table 25). Not much resistant to weathering and erosion. They develop landforms similar to the original rocks they are derived from. Because they have been repeatedly folded and fractured they are usually in steep attitudes and folded into undulating lamellations. Drainage in uniform schists is dendritic, close-spaced in phyllites and widely spaced in quartzite schist. Fault control is prominent. In humid climates schists tend to form rounded crests as a result of intense weathering. Table 6.27. Schist (Humid and Arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 88 Slates have rugged topography and have very characteristic drainage, angular and most often rectangular. The hills are rounded, the slopes are very steep. Tone is usually dark. Gneiss is a massive foliated rock of granitic character with high erosion resistance. Orthogneiss is derived from granite and morphologically similar to it in appearance and landform, showing rounded forms. Paragneisses derived from sediments show sharp crested parallel ridges when they are derived from massive sandstone; smooth and irregular in case of metamorphosed shales, tuffs, lavas or marls. The tone varies widely depending on the composition. Marbles, crystalline limestones have granular structure and have fine to coarse textures. Marble shows a massive appearance with smooth rounded forms. Development of sinkholes depend on the attitude, character, purity and mineral composition of the rock. Serpentinites (metamorphic basic igneous rocks) occur in roundish or lenticular masses; compact resistant and impervious. Resistance to erosion varies, but not too high. The tone is dark. Poor soil cover, vegetation sparse, drainage is radial, fracture controlled. Table 6.28. Slate (Humid and Arid) (Way, 1973) Table 6.29. Gneiss (Humid and Arid) (Way, 1973) İleri Fotojeoloji Ders Notları, Kadir Dirik, 2006 89 LIST OF REFERENCES Allum, J.A.E., 1975, Photogeology and Regional mapping, Pergamon Press, 107 p. Bandat, H.F., 1962, Aerogeology, Gulf Publishing Company, 350 p. Drury, S.A., 1986, Image Interpretation in Geology, Allen and Unwin, 243 p. Hamblin, W.K. and Howard, J.D., 1986, Exercises in Physical Geology, Burgess Publishing, 191 p Miller, V.C., 1981, Photogeology, McGraw-Hill, 248 p. Ray, R.G., 1960, Aerial Photographs in Geologic Interpretation and Mapping, U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper, 373 p. Wanless, H.R., Aerial Stereo Photographs, Dept of Geology, Univ. of Illinois. Way, D.S., 1973, Terrain Analysis, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. Dowden Hutchinson and Ross.