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I %’#/$%#,% %= ,%%#((1 =%##%#: ’/ (($ ((2 2 (/%’2 #1 #%3 ’=%##2 ((#%<###((1 =%#####=%##’* %1 (’$%%<=%#%3= ’$% /% %’$%%/#’#%3 ’$%%= ,%%#$%(/% <(##%%3H H H ’2 %%#’#((1 ($6H %#=%##%= ,%%# /(%’(%3 + + R y V ç R I z V 2 I y I R y V ç R I z V 2 I y I B (a) (b) V ç I ç I Z,max V Z E im=r d E im=R + + 12 - . 9+9!2/ . . 4 . 7 999 /. 0. . )G A/G0((. 6, 7/2 %%= ,%’$%%#/’ : = ’/2 %=%##$%%#%2 $%#%#’ 1 %3 F =#%#1 =%####((1 =%###%(’#=%##A%(#((1 (((%<((’%= ’$%’* %(%3 ç ç D I V V P · - = ) ( 2 )9+H, 7$%’* %= : (<$%##%(%##((1 %#,% * %/% #’’’/’/1 #’((=%#%3’%’%#,%#’ # I C =0’/’# V CE =0/’2 ’%#,%’* %= P D =V CE ×I C * %: (A(% /%3 %#,% * %/%(’(2 (’$%%B anahtar modlu Switch Mode C’$%%’#%3 &* %/’’$%%’/2 %=%### $’ 1 % ’ %3 - . 9+< /. 04 . /282 2A21. / )0AA , &* %/’’$%%#%,%M#6?’=,% ’#%3%’;-O) %#,%* % /% (’(%3 - %#,% 1 #’# % ’= # % ’ 2 # A * %((<%#/’#/%((<<’(2 (( RC: ###%# /’2 $ ((1 =%####%6<<%#/’ / ’2 #1 ’#2 ## ’#3 A * %( <(’(2 (’’#/(’/’2 ’= (/#’%3 0...t k : %(2 (’((’2 %# ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) ( 1 2 1 2 0 1 , L k L t k L I t L V V I dt V V L I k + - @ + - = )9+*I, : %(2 (/’/#(( ( ) min , 2 1 max , L k L I t L V V I + - @ )9+**, ’2 %# 1 (%3 ’ * % ((% /#’ = ( ’#/ : %#’ : % ’$’%3 a L t L a L t L V I dt V L I i a 2 max , 0 2 max , , 1 - @ - = )9+*3, V 2 V 1 + + i L i D L C R A v k M 1 v k (t) i L (t) t k t a T 1 2 V T t V k = I L,max I L,min I y I y 220V AC R 1 V 2 C 1 @ - ’$% R 2 V ç C 2 C 3 V g + + 13 L %#/’(2 (’U ( ) a L k a L L L t L V I t L V V t L V I I i 2 2 1 2 max , min , ) 0 ( ) 0 ( - + - = - = = )9+*9, 1 ##2 #’’##%3%’ ( ) 0 2 2 1 = - - a k t L V t L V V ( ) k a t t V V V = - 2 2 1 )9+*<, a k a t t t V + = 2 )9+*>, &* % < <%/’ T = t k Rt a /’2 =,% * %( <( /’2 %# <%/’/%( D’#% a k k k t t t T t D + = = 1 2 V D V · = )9+*C, ’%’((1 =%####* %((<<%’=/%/#1 %##’%N /1 /%(%%/’2 #1 #%##2 #=,% %3F((1 (#= 2 (/% /#’2 %#$* %A%(%(%3/#’’, F CQ EQ CC BQ EQ CC BQ BQ CC B I V V I V V I V V R b 10 6 , 0 10 6 , 0 10 1 - - = - - = - = )<+C, F CQ EQ BQ EQ BQ BQ B I V I V I V R b 10 6 , 0 10 6 , 0 10 2 + = + = = )<+E, 4 =%##: (’’##### R E ’#%## ’2 %##% C E /’,% # ,<% #=%#%3 R C R 1 R 2 R E +V CC V CQ I CQ V CEQ V EQ V BQ + + + R C R B +V CC V CQ I CQ V CEQ V BQ + + R C R B +V CC V CQ I CQ V CEQ V BQ R + I BQ (b) (c) 18 3 7.5.47.595;.4&L G@ &;&80.)&L @ &+ 3 M #6?’#’$%%## V CC Q12V=%###’ V CEQ Q6V , I CQ =33mA(1 /((2 1 #’’#%’2 %%##* <((: 3 b @((: 3 7$%# R C Q............. R B Q............. 7$%# R C Q.............. R B Q............. 7$%# R C Q............. R E Q............. R B1 Q............. R B2 Q............. 3 )O+D@ &+ 3 M# 6?’# ’$%# /,% (( (( ’ ’2 #1 #%P DI C =f(DT) 2 (((( (%((: 3 3 M#6’?’#’$%’/,%(((((’2 #1 ##’’* : ’(%P %’##: 3 3 -O) %#,%%’’(1 /(((’2 #1 #%#P 5’P 19 3! 7.5.4 54&LG@ GMG 3 M#6?’#’$%#* <’(2 ((: ’#%%#%%: 3 - . <+3 3 %#,% (1 /((/,%=%##%##$/,%(((, : 3 3 &<%%$$/%2 (#/2 <%%’((%#,% /2 : $ /,% (( # /,% =%#### ’2 #1 ### ###: 3 ’2 : # ’2 %%# ’’##: 3 3 &<%%$$/%2 (##%* $%’((%#,% ((((: $/,% ((#/,%=%####’2 #1 ######: 3’2 : #’2 %%#’’##: 3 3 7$%#=#%#1 #2 (/’,% : %#’#%# %#2 (<0: ?## =%## =((: 3 7$%# =#%#1 $ ((1 ( /#//< 2 % ’= 1 #%## ###: 3F((1 #’=1 #’=,: =,% %#%/: /’%=#%#1 =%#### %(%((: 3) /%=#%#1 =%#####%: : %/: (=,% ’#2 ##%((1 =%###’ ’##: 3’%’%#,% /2 %$((%’=1 #’#/: (#: ##: $ 1 ###: ##: 3 - . <+9 !3 M #6?’#’$%#* <’(2 ((: ’#%%#%%: 3 3 -’’333?#%%((: 3 /#//< Y1 Y2 R C R B1 +V CC V CEQ V + A + I CQ R B2 R E (b) 1kHz 10uF /#//< Y1 Y2 I CQ R C R B +V CC V CEQ V + A + (a) 1kHz 10uF 20 79++*, (mA) 26 1 c m e I g r = = T=290ºK, oda sıcaklı ı için - . >+*! = . 20 . / A / R k C 2 C 1 R C R 1 R 2 R E C E R y v 1 v 2 +V CC R ç R g 22 7$%#=#%#1 $((1 ’#%%#U ) //( // 2 1 e F g r R R R b = )>+3, C O C ç R r R R @ = // )>+9, . 2 % C E ,%,<% /’,% (: =%## : ( ’ 1 % =#%#1 ’#%# %%3F((1 ’#%#’2 #1 : 3’%’U e E C V r R Ry R v v K + - = = // 1 2 )>+<, [ ] ) ( // // 2 1 e F g r RE R R R + = b )>+>, 8 $$’#%###’/2 %,=’####((1 ##1 %#<’<=%#### V CC -V EQ ’2 %#’ /(: (’(%3&#* ’((1 #1 %#$N $ ((’ (%<((%3 . (%<((: ((1 =%#### (## ## V CQ =%#### V CC # V EQ =%##%##/%(’##=%#%3 3 7.5.47.595;.4&L G@ &;&80.)&L @ &+ 3 M #6?’#’$%’%#,% (1 /((* <((: b @((: 3 V BQ Q ............. V EQ Q ............. I EQ @ I CQ = ............. V CQ Q ............. V CEQ Q ............. 3 7$%#=%##: (#=#%#1 $((1 ’#%%## S 2 * %((<(’%## * <((: 3 K V Q............. R g Q............. R ç Q............. 3 7$%#=%##: (#=#%#1 $((1 ’#%%## S 2 * %(((’%## * <((: 3 K V Q............. R g Q............. R ç Q............. 3 F((1 (#=%###<’2 %##* <((: 3 V 2 (max) =............... 23 3 )O+D@ &+ 3 C E 8/’,% ’$%#: (((#%P 8/’,% $/’,% : ’%’’$%# #1 %1 ’2 %###: %: A/% (%((: 3 3 #%$$’#%###’/2 %#%,=’(1 (2 (((%((: P &((3 3 R E ’#%##’2 %#=,%#%#%P $ ###’2 #1 #%#%P 3! 7.5.4 54&LG@ GMG 3 M#6?’#’$%#%: 3 R S =0(’$%<((: 3 S 1 $ S 2 * %%((<( ’%=#%%’$%#(1 (%((: 3 3 %#,% (1 /((/,%: $,%’/2 %=%##%##, : $’’##: 3 - . >+3/ 3 7$%# =#%#1 # 0: A%( # ### #% #1 % =((: 3 v 2 =%#### <%##(%<(1 ’(2 (/’%=#%#1 =%####%(%((: 3/’ =#%#1 $((1 =%####<’2 %## V 1 (max), V 2 (max), ’’##: 3 3 E#%#1 =%####%(’ 1 % : 3 3 E#%#1 $((1 =%####<’2 %##’’##: 3E%##: ((* <((: 3 !3 S 2 &* %((((: 3-’’$? %%((: 3 3 E#%#1 R S =1kW %#’#%/%=#%#1 ((( , : 3Y i 1 = (v k -v 1 )/R S ] 7$%#=#%#1 ’#%##* <((: 3Y R g = v 1 /i 1 ] . 3 E#%#1 $((1 =%####’=1 #%##(%<((1 $(%<((1 ’%’#: ##: 3 /#//< Y1 Y2 S 2 560 12k 100 470mF v 2 S 1 +12V v k 47mF R S 1kHz i 1 2k2 v 1 24 79+?! =. 20 . / A 7#4<% 33333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 7 %#* # 333333333333333333333333333333333333 3 V CQ V BQ V EQ I C Hesap Deney 3 V 2 (max) = ................... V 1 (max) = ................... 6!3 3(. 35 V 1 V 2 K V V 1 V 2 K V 3 V k p = ............... V 1p = ................ I 1p = .................. R g = .................. 3 0 0,5 1,5 2 2,5 3 v 2 (t) (V) 1 t(ms) 0 0,5 1,5 2 2,5 3 v 1 (t) (V) 1 t(ms) 25 ! !3 7.5.4 5E&4.) -O) %#,% $$’#%##’$%%### !3 8D@ @ &5G@ &;&8&@ . @ .+H.-&@ I.-.@ .+ . @ 6. %/#2 ###-/’ . @ 6 -#% O#//< -O) %#,%5$1 ’2 %# 8 /’,%% m m 7#%% - !3 .-.@ @ E @ .+ C9* 0 0(. / -O) 8<’$%#/%%#,%<’$%#: %3%’,# I DQ (( 2 ( /% V GS =%#### * <( =%#%3 -O) (( ,=#’ (1 2 (’ ) - ( 2 1 2 T GS V V L W KP I DQ = )C+*, %’ KP=m n C ox ’(%3%’ V GS ,: % : T 2 V W L KP I V DQ GS + = )C+3, - . C+*0 . / A / R k C 2 C 1 R D R 1 R 2 R S C S R y v 1 v 2 +V CC R ç R g D S G 26 V GS V DQ I DQ $ V SQ ##’#2 #=,%’#%’2 %%#/* <(%3 V SQ =%###/% %#,%%’/’2 =## V DD =%####/’#%##$%(’##%3 DQ DQ DD D I V V R - = )C+9, DQ SQ S I V R = )C+<, -O) ?7&=#%#1 ’#%#/: ’##2 #’ R 1 $ R 2 ’=( I , / (##% mA%#’3G(( R 1 R 2 ’#%%##-%(/1 #’##%3 I V V V R S GS DD - - = 1 )C+>, I V V R S GS + = 2 )C+C, M #!6?’#-O) 8$$’#%###=%##: ( ) // ( 1 2 Ry R g v v K C m V - = = )C+E, ) V - (V T GS L W KP g m = 7$%#=#%#1 $((1 ’#%%#U 2 1 // R R R g = )C+F, ds D ç r R R // = )C+H, D ds I r l 1 = )C+*I, . 2 % C E ,%,<% /’,% (: =%##: (’ 1 %3’%’U 1 ) // ( 1 2 S m D m V R g Ry R g v v K + - = = )C+**, 8 $$’#%###’/2 %,=’####((1 ##1 %#<’<=%#### V CC -V DQ $ V DSQ ’2 %%#’ /( : (’(%3 &# * ’ ((1 #1 %# $ ((’(%<((%3. (%<((: ((1 =%####(#### V DQ =%#### V CC # V SQ =%##%##/%(’##=%#%3 27 !3 7.5.47.595;.4&L G@ &;&80.)&L @ &+ 3 M #!6’$%###-O) %#,% (1 /((* <((: V T =2V, l=0,04V -1 , KP(W/L)=100·10 -3 A/V 2 , ((: 3 V GSQ Q............. V SQ Q............. I SQ @ I DQ = ............ V DQ Q ............. V DSQ Q ............. 3 7$%#=%##: (#=#%#1 $((1 ’#%%## S 2 * %((<(’%## * <((: 3 K V Q............. R g Q............. R ç Q............. 3 7$%#=%##: (( S 2 * %(((’%##* <((: 3 K V Q............. 3 F((1 (#=%###<’2 %##* <((: 3 V 2 (max)=............... !3 )O+D@ &+ 3 -O) $$’#%###/%%#,% #, - – = + = k k s arctg s A A w p j w w w 2 ) ( 2 2 0 )E+C, %’Z#1 %#: (R$6/1 =,%((%3E#%#1 A/#/##R((1 A/#/##6((%3) /: %%<(’(2 (’ ’$%#: (6/%3 R k 1 1 sC R g + V 2 + V 1 R ç R y + V 2 g m V be (a) Giri devresi (b) Çıkı devresi 2 1 sC R k C 2 C 1 R C R 1 R E C E R y v 1 R ç R g R 2 b e + + c v 2 C ce r b’e C b’e r bb’ b’ g m v b’e + r oe C b’c v b’e C ce 32 ’$%%’#%##: $A: 2 %##/’2 %###: ##%M#6?’=,% A%$($A%%%##2 #’’##%3%$<%(%(/=%##,# %#/=%##=## dB/%’/2 %=%A#2 (’(#: ##%3 - . E+<),7. / = 22 . 6)1, = =( 2. / = 22 . ;5 ;/7 8 8 /’,%%# ##: /’2 /% A%%’ 2 ( : ’ A: ’(%3 8< A%(’ f = f k : $((1 =%###6’?’ 1 %/%A%%’#’2 %## ?#3A%A: ’/%A%%=,% %%3 . ,%,<% /’,% ###%: ’* %1 ((%3. ,%/’,% <’((/ (2 (’%A%%’<%2 ( R E -C E #A## <’( Z E #: E e y C V Z r R R K A + - = = // )E+E, 1 + = E E E E C sR R Z %#/% ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( // ) ( 0 0 0 k k e y C s s s s K s s s s r R R s A - - = - - - = )E+F, ) (A(%A%( E E C R s 1 0 0 = - = w $! . 0 . / A (. . 5 A1 ’%’,%,<% /’,% : ’’$%#A%$(M #6?’# =## /%3 /’,%%# #%# ’ 1 % $$’#%## ’$%# (( A% $( M# 6?# =## /(%3 D=’ R E -C E #A## /1 %’2 < A%( C 1 , C 2 T#/1 %’2 >w k 3. 2 % r bb’ ’#%##* ’#: #%<’%’=#%3, (mA) 26 1 c m e I g r = = T=290ºK, oda sıcaklı ı için F93 8 ;A ’’$%’ V 1 $ ' 1 V 1 #1 %(#’2 #1 #2 #’ ((’2 #1 ’#2 #’ V 2 $ ' 2 V ’2 #1 : 3D=’$%#’(2 (/%(1 T 3 %#,% ((1 ’#%# r o /: /’(2 (’ V 1 $ ' 1 V #%#’2 #1 #2 #’ ((’#%#%’2 #1 #%32 (40 /% V 2 $ ' 2 V ’’2 #1 #%3 V 2 ’#’2 #1 ## ' 1 1 V V = ’#’2 #1 #/%(B/%#1 %: (C ’#%3 o C C r R V V V K 2 ) ( ' 1 1 2 - = = D D = )F+C, 8 %%#,% T 3 ((1 ’#%# r o R C ?=,%/ /’2 ’ K C /%#1 % : (?’/ %37#A%#: (/%#1 %: (/%(B/%#1 % (%/%(;//-/’+ J #/+ #/;-++C’($%##%3 [ ] = = e o C D r r K K CMMR 2 log 20 log 20 dB 10 10 )F+E, ##%A%$$’#%###’;--+’?’ /(’(%3 3 7.5.47.595;.4&L G@ &;&80.)&L @ &+ 3 M # 6T’#’$%’’/2 %((1 ($=%##%##* <((: 3 V EQ3 Q............. V EQ1 Q............. I Q.................. V CQ1 Q............. 3 7$%#A%: (( * <((: 3 K D Q............. 3 7$%#/%#1 % : ((* <((: r oe =100kW ((: 3 K C Q............. 3 O%#1 % : (A(( * <((: 3 CMRRQ............. - . F+3K ;A=. 52. 3 )O+D@ &+ 3O%#1 %: (A((’* A: %(%##’$%’=##’2 #1 ##%<(##%P M ##: %((: 3 3 #%$’ A%(’2 #1 #1 %%#$$’#%#% A%$$’#%###<(##%(P 5(P &(((: 3 3%$$’#%###/%=#%#1 $((1 ($$’#%##/%(##%(P 5(P &(((: 3 /#//< Y1 Y2 5k6 82k 10k 470 V 2 V 1 + I +12V 12V T 1 T 2 T 3 5k6 ' 1 V ' 2 V 41 3! 7.5.4 54&LG@ GMG !3 M# 6?’# ’$%# %: 3 7$%# 1 ## /%(’# ’/2 % =%##%# #% $/%#, : 3 / 6T’’##: 3 3 7$%#=#%#1 #0: A%(# ####%#1 %=((: 3E#%#1 =%#### v 2 =%####<%#(%<(1 #’%((: 3E#%#1 $((1 =%##%##/#//< ,% ’$%# ’#A%# =%## : (( : 3 Not: Diferansiyel çıkı gerilimini ölçmek için osiloskobun Y1 ve Y2 giri lerini aynı anda T 1 ve T 2 transistörlerinin kollektörlerine ba layarak (Y1-Y2) gerilimini ölçünüz. 3 V 2 $ V 2 ’=%##%##/##//<#% =%A#2 (’(#: ##: 3 3 T 2 %#,% : ((/<%(%% T 1 ?#: (##%## %#2 ((: 3 M # 63F((1 , ##%#1 %=,%’%=#%#1 =%####%(%((: 3F((1 $ =#%#1 =%##%#/%((%/%/’: ((: 3;-++’2 %##* <((: 3 - . F+9 8 ;A=. 52. /#//< Y1 Y2 5k6 82k 10k 470 V 2 V 1 + +12V -12V T 1 T 2 T 3 5k6 ' 1 V ' 2 V 42 79+, y CC CC CQ CC R V V I V P 2 DA = = )H+C, 25 , 0 4 1 ) 2 /( ) 8 /( 2 2 DA (max) max = = = = Y CC Y CC Y R V R V P P h )H+E, ’’##%34#&6) ((A(#%$’#%##’$%#[?’: /: /%’’(%38 # = [?’ A: ( %#,%’ * %(% $ (( ’, 1 %3 : ’ &6((A( $$’#%##%= $$’#%###/%(=’2 #’#%3 H9< + 0 . / A H %## %(% ## 6((A( $$’#%##% $ ’#2 %%# ((’(%3 $$’#%##%’/2 %’2 #’#%36) ((A($$’#%###’/2 %/%### ##%#,%(%B<* 60,6V I o v g (q) p 2p + V B + V B t46 V y (max) =............... 3 . 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