Molek├╝ler Biyoloji History of Molecular Biology A Brief and Incomplete History of Molecular Biology 1865 Gregor Mendel phenotypic basis of inheritance 1868 Friedrich Meischer discovers "nuclein" -in pus & fish sperm August Weismann describes reduction division of chromosomes 1887 Walter Sutton describes meiosis & spermatogenesis in insects 1903 "Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance" Thomas Hunt Morgan Drosophilia, chromosmal linkage & crossing over 1909 Alfred Stuartevant mapping of genes on chromsomes 1910 Robert Fuelgen cytochemical staining & identification of DNA 1924 Fred Griffith used pneumococcus & described gene transformation 1928 Ted Painter identifies polytene chromosomes 1933 1930's George Beadle & Ed Tatum "one gene - one enzyme" 1940's Linus Pauling peace identifies alpha helix structure of proteins 1940's Maurice Wilkins & Rosy Franklin X-ray diffraction - structure of DNA 1944 Oswald Avery, Maclyn MacLeod, & Colin McCarty chemically suggest that "DNA is genetic material " Erwin Chargaff "Chargaff's Rule" - DNA base complimentarity A:T G:C 1950 1950's Fred Sanger tRNA sequences 1st protein - insulin Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase 32 P viral DNA replication = genes are DNA 1951 James Watson & Francis Crick identify model structure of DNA 1952 Arthur Kornberg describes action of DNA polymerase 1956 1950's Peter Mitchell Chemiosmosis - how cells make ATP 1958 Matt Meselson & Frank Stahl semiconservative replication of DNA 1960 Paul Doty & Jay Marmur Tm-hyperchromicity DNA - DNA hybridization 1961 Holley, Khorana, & Nirenberg & Henirich Mattaei identifies Genetic Code 1963 Jerome Vinograd identifies super-coiled structure of DNA 1968 Stanley Cohen discovers plasmids & antibiotic resistance 1969 Edmonds & Caramelai identifies poly-A-polymerase 1970 Herbert Boyer discovers restriction endonuclease 1971 Gunter Blobel signal hypothesis 1972 Paul Berg Recombinant DNA's - splices SV40 & E coli 1975 Walter Gilbert, Allan Maxam, Fred Sanger develop DNA sequences techniques 1975 Cesar Milstein, Geo. Kohler, & Niles Jeme develop monoclonal antibodies 1976 Robert Swanson & Herb Boyer create GENENTECH biopharmaceutical Co. 1977 Richard Roberts & Philip Sharp identifies split genes (introns & exons) 1978 Genentech, Inc. produces Humulin 1st recombinant DNA drug 1981 Sidney Altman & Tom Cech identifies ribozymes 1985 Kary Mullis creates PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction 1989 HGP Project project to sequence entire human genome 1990 French Anderson 1st use of Recombinant DNA drug (ADA) 1992 Harry Noller peptidyl transferase is a ribozyme 1992 Edmund Fischer & Edwin Krebs identify protein phosphorylation 1993 Kerry Mullis creates PCR reaction 1994 Calgene FlavrSavr tomato 1st transgenic food 1996 Ian Wilmut mammalian cloning & Dolly 1997 Paul Boyer & John Walker describes ATP synthase mechanism 1998 James Thompson & John Gearhart plueripotent (stem) cells cultured 1999 Craig Venter complete gene sequence of Drosophila identified 2000 Craig Venter Human Genome sequence announced