Hücre Biyolojisi Hücre Biyolojisine Giriş SİTOLOJİNİN KISA TARİHİ 1642 Death of Galileo Galilei – credited as the father of the scientific method. 1665 Robert Hooke publishes ‘Micrographia’. 1683 Anton van Leeuwenhoek writes to the Royal Society of London describing the presence of ‘animalcules’ in the plaque of his own teeth. This was among the first descriptions of living bacteria ever recorded. 1776 Lazzaro Spallanzani demonstrates that an organism is derived from another organism. 1831 Robert Brown coins the term ‘nucleus’. Brown also discovered Brownian motion. 1838 Matthias Schleiden states that plants are composed of cells. 1839 Theodore Schwann states that animals are composed of cells and that ‘the elementary parts of all tissues are composed of cells’ 1857 Carl Zeiss sells his first compound microscope. 1876 Ernst Haeckel credited with coining the term ‘plastid’. 1882 Walther Flemming introduces the term ‘mitosis’. 1898 Carl Benda names ‘mitochondria’ and Camillo Golgi discovered the organelle that bears his name. 1931 Ernst Ruska builds first Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) at Siemens. 1944 Keith Porter, credited as the father of modern cell biology, and his colleague Albert Claude take first picture of an intact cell with the TEM. Porter coins the term ‘endoplasmic reticulum’. Porter is also responsible for developing the microtome. 1994 Martin Chalfie and colleagues first to use GFP as a marker for gene expression. Robert Hooke (1635-1703) Antonie van LEEUWENHOEK (1632-1723) BAKTERİLER SPERM HÜCRESİ HÜCRE TEORİSİ Matthias SCHLEIDEN 1838: “Bütün bitkisel dokular hücrelerden meydana gelir.” Theodore SCHWANN 1839: “Bütün hayvansal dokular hücrelerden meydana gelir.” Rudolf VIRCHOW 1855: “Bütün hücreler var olan diğer hücrelerden meydana gelir” 1. Canlılığın en küçük birimi hücredir. 2. Bütün canlılar hücrelerden meydana gelir. 3. Bütün hücreler mevcut hücrelerden meydana gelir. HÜCRE ZARI ZAR MODELLERİ Gorter-Grendel Modeli (1925) Danielli-Davson Modeli (1935) Singer-Nicholson Modeli (1972) Hücre Zarının Üç Boyutlu Yapısı (Şematik) HÜCRE ZARININ ÜSTTEN GÖRÜNÜMÜ (75.000X)