Yönetim Esasları - II Influencing and Communication Chapter 14 - Influencing and Communication Defining Influencing : it is the process of guiding the activities of organization members in appropriate directions. It involves focusing on organization 1. members as people and dealing with such issues as The input of this subsystem is composed of a portion of the total resources of the overall management system such as people, money, raw materials and machines. The output is appropriate organization member behavior. The process of the influencing subsystem involves the performance of four primary management activities: * leading, * motivating, * considering groups, and * communicating. 2. Communication : Communication is the process of sharing information with other individuals. Communication is a commonly used management skill and ability and is often cited as the skill most responsible for a manager’s success ; prospective managers must learn how to communicate. 2.1. Interpersonal Communication: To be a successful interpersonal communicator, a manager must understand the following: * How interpersonal communication works , * The relationship between feedback and interpersonal communication , * The importance of verbal versus nonverbal interpersonal communication 2.1a How interpersonal Communication Works: Interpersonal communication is the process of transmitting information to others. To be complete the process must have the following components: * The source/encoder: this is the person who originates and encodes the information to be shared with others. It is putting the information in a form that can be received and understood by another individual. * The signal: encoded information that the source intends to share constitutes a message. A message that has been transmitted from one person to another is called a signal. * The decoder/destination: This is the person(s) with whom the source is attempting to share information. The person receives the signal and decodes or interprets the message to determine its meaning. Decoding is converting messages back into information. Successful and unsuccessful interpersonal communication Successful communication is an interpersonal communication in which the information the source intends to share with the destination and the meaning the destination derives from the transmitted message are the same. Conversely, unsuccessful communication is an interpersonal communication in which the information the source intends to share with the destination and the meaning the destination derives from the transmitted message are different. To have a successful communication, the message must be encoded so that the source’s experience of the way a signal should be decoded is equivalent to the destination’s experience of the way it should be decoded. Barriers to successful interpersonal communication : Factors that decrease the probability that communication will be successful are called communication barriers. There are two types of barriers. Macrobarriers : They are factors that hinder successful communication in general communication situation. These relate primarily to the communication environment and the larger world in which the communication takes place. * The increasing need for information — because the society is changing constantly and rapidly, individuals have greater and greater information need. This overloads communication networks, thereby distorting communication. To minimize its effects, managers should ensure that organizational members are not overloaded with information. Only critical information related to the performance of the job should be transmitted. * The needs for increasingly complex information — because of today’s rapid technological advances, most people are faced with complex communication situations in their everyday lives. To overcome this barrier, there is a need to emphasize simplicity in communication and to train members who should deal with technical areas. * The constant need to learn new concepts cuts down on the time available for communication — many managers feel pressured to learn new and important concepts that they did not have to know in the past. Learning about the intricacies of international business or computer usage takes significant amounts of managerial time. Microbarriers : they are factors that hinder successful communication in a specific communication situation. * The source’s view of the destination — the source i n any communication situation ha s a tendency to view the destination in a specific way, and this view influences the messages sent. For example, individuals speak differently to people they think are informed about a subject than those they believe are uninformed. Managers should pay attention to people with whom they communicate and be careful not to imply negative attitudes through their communication behaviors. * Message interference — stimuli that compete with the communication message for the attention of the destination are called message interference or noise. For instance, a man a ger talks to an office worker while the worker tries to input data into a word processor. * The destination’s view of the source — certain attitude of the destination toward the source can also hinder successful communication. For example, if a destination believes that the source has little credibility in the area about which the source is communicating, the destination may filter out much of the source’s message and pay only slight attention to that part of the message actually received. Managers should attempt to consider the worth of messages transmitted to them independently of their personal attitudes toward the source. * Perception — this is an individual’s interpretation of a message. Different individuals may perceive the same message in very different ways. These are concerned with the destination’s education level and the destination’s amount of experience. To minimize its effects, it is essential to send the message with precise meanings. * Multimeaning words — because many words in a language have several meanings, a destination may have difficulty deciding which meaning should be attached to the words of a message. 2.1b Feedback and Interpersonal Communication : Feedbac k is the destination’s reaction to a message. It can be used by the source to ensure successful communication. For example, if the destination’s message reaction is inappropriate, the source can conclude that the communication was unsuccessful and that another message should be transmitted. If the destination’s message reaction is appropriate, the source can conclude that communication was successful. Gathering and using feedback: feedback can either be verbal or nonverbal. To gather verbal feedback, the source can simply ask the destination appropriate message-related questions; the destination’s answers should indicate whether the message was perceived as intended. To gather nonverbal feedback, the source can observe the destination’s nonverbal response to a message. If managers discover that their communication effectiveness is relatively low over an extended period of time, they should assess the situation to determine how to improve their communication skills.Achieving communication effectiveness: in general managers can sharpen their communication skills by adhering Ten Commandments of good communication. * Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating — good planning must consider the goals and attitudes of those who will receive the communication and those who will be affected by it. * Examine the true purpose of each communication — ask yourself what you really want to accomplish with your message; obtain information, initiate action or change another person’s attitude. Identify your most important goal and then adapt your language, tone and total approach to serve the specific objective. * Consider the total physical and human setting whenever you communicate — managers must be sensitive to the total setting in which they communicate. For example, your sense of timing that is the circumstances under which you make an announcement or render a decision; the physical setting whether you communicate in private or otherwise. * Consult with others, when appropriate, in planning communications — it is desirable to seek the participation of others in planning a communication. Such consultation lends additional insight and objectivity to your message. * Be mindful of the overtones while you communicate rather than merely the basic content of your message — your tone of voice, your expression, your apparent receptiveness to the responses of others, your language and meaning in words all have significant effect on those you wish to reach. Such subtleties of communication will predetermine the reactions of listeners. * Take the opportunity, when it arises, to convey something of help or value to the receiver — consideration of other people’ interests and needs; immediate benefit or long-range value to the other person should be emphasized. * Follow up your communication — how well you have put your message across requires such questions to be asked as encouraging the receiver to express his or her reactions, following up on contacts, and subsequently reviewing performance. * Communicate for tomorrow as well as today — communications must be consistent with long-range interests and goals. For example, it is not easy to communicate such matters as poor performance or the shortcomings of a loyal subordinate, but postponing disagreeable communications makes these matters more difficult in the long run and is unfair to your company. * Be sure your actions support your communications — most persuasive communication is not what you say, but what you do. Your actions should not contradict your words. Otherwise others tend to discount what you have said. 2.1c Verbal and Nonverbal Interpersonal Communication : Interpersonal communication can be divided into two types: verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication is the sharing of information through words; either written or spoken. Nonverbal communication is the sharing of information without using words. In an interpersonal communication situation both verbal and nonverbal factors are present, nonverbal factors may have more influence on the total effect of the message. 2.2 Interpersonal Communication in Organizations : Organizational communication or interpersonal communication within organizations directly relates to the goals, functions, and structure of human organizations. The following sections focus on three fundamental organizational communication topics: 2.2a Formal Organizational Communication : Formal organizational communication follows the lines of the organization chart. There are three basic types of formal organizational communication: * Downward organizational communication: it is communication that flows from any point on an organization chart downward to another point on the organization chart. This is primarily related to the direction and control of employees. Job-related information that focuses on what activities are required, when they should be performed, and how they should be coordinated with other activities within the organization must be transmitted to employees. This typical downward communication includes a statement of organizational philosophy, management system objectives, position descriptions and other written information relating to the interrelationships of various departments. * Upward organizational communication : it is the communication that flows from any point on an organization chart upward to another point on the organization chart. This type of organizational communication contains primarily the information managers need to evaluate the organizational for which they are responsible and to determine if something is going wrong within it. Informal discussions with employees, attitude surveys, the use of grievance procedures, suggestion systems, and an open door policy are some of the techniques managers use to encourage upward communication. * Lateral organizational communication: it is the communication that flows from any point on an organization chart horizontally to another point on the organization chart. Such communication focuses on coordinating the activities of various departments and developing new plans for future operating periods. Patterns of formal organizational communication: organizational communication creates patterns of communication among organization members. These patterns evolve from the repeated occurrence of various serial transmissions of information. According to Haney, a serial transmission involves passing information from one individual to another in a series. For example, A communicates the message to B; B then communicates A’s message to C; C then communicates his or her interpretation of B’s interpretation of A’s message to D; and son. The middle people separate the originator and the ultimate recipient of the message. 2.2b Informal Organizational Communication : Informal organizational communication is organizational communication that does not follow the lines of the organization chart. It follows the patterns of personal relationships among organization members. Patterns of informal organizational communication: Informal organizational communication network or grapevine has three main characteristics: * It spring up and is used irregularly within the organization. , * The top executives, who may not even be able to influence it, do not control it , * It exists largely to serve the self-interests of the people within it. Informal organizational communication also uses serial transmissions. The single-strand grapevine — A tells B, who tells C, who tells D and so on. It ? tends to distort messages more than any other. - The gossip grapevine — A informs everyone else on the grapevine. - The probability grapevine — A communicates randomly to F and D. F and D then continue to inform other grapevine members in the same way. - The cluster grapevine — A selects and tells C, D, and F. F selects and tells I and B, and B selects and tells J. Information travels only to selected individuals. Grapevines are a factor managers must deal with because they can generate rumors that are detrimental to organizational success. Managers can use grapevines advantageously to maximize information flow to employees.