Yönetim Esasları - II Leadership Chapter 15-Leadership 1. Defining Leadership Leadership is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of sa me objective. Leadership, as one of the primary activities of the influencing function, is a subset of management. Managing is much broader in scope than leading and focuses on nonbehavioral as well as behavioral issues. Leading emphasizes mainly behavioral issues. 2. The Trait Approach to Leadership The trait approach to leadership assumes that a good leader is born, not made. If a complete profile of the traits of a successful leader could be drawn, it would be fairly easy to identify the individuals who should and should not be placed in leadership positions. These findings are inconsistent. Leadership is much more complex issue. 3. The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior The situational approach suggests that successful leadership requires a unique combination of leaders, followers, and leadership situations. The Tannenbaum and Schmidt Leadership Continuum a- In Figure 15.2 the model is a continuum of leadership behavior available to managers when they are making decisions. Each type of decision making behavior has both a corresponding degree of authority used by the manager a related amount of freedom available to subordinates. Managers displaying the leadership behavior toward the right of the model are more democratic, and are called subordinate-centered leaders. Those displaying leadership behavior toward the left of the model are autocratic, and are called boss-centered leaders. According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt, the three primary forces influence a manager ’ s a determination of which leadership behavior to use in making decisions. Forces in the manager —the managers should be aware of four forces within themselves that influence ? their determination of how to make decisions as a leader. (1) manager ’ s values such as such as relative importance to the manager of organizational efficiency, personal growth, the growth of subordinates, and company profits, (2) level of confidence in subordinates 8high confidence leads to more democratic and subordinate-centered decision-making style, (3) personal leadership strengths such as issuing orders or leading group discussions, (4) the tolerance for ambiguity; the move from a boss- centered style to a subordinate-centered style means some loss of certainty about how problems should be solved. Forces in subordinates—managers can increase their leadership success by allowing subordinates more ? freedom in making decisions when: (1) subordinates have a relatively high need for independence, (2) subordinates have a readiness to assume responsibility for decision making, (3) subordinates have a relatively high tolerance for ambiguity, (4) subordinates are interested in the problem and believe it is important to solve it, (5) subordinates understand and identify with the organizational goals, (6) subordinates have necessary knowledge and experience to deal with the problem, (7) subordinates have learned to expect to share in decision-making. If subordinates do not have these characteristics, the manager should assume a more autocratic or boss-centered approach to decision-making. Forces in the situation— (1) the type of organization such as size of working groups and their ? geographic distribution (large work groups support subordinate-centered leadership style), (2) the effectiveness of a group such as the experience of group members in working together and degree of their confidence they have in their ability to solve problems as a group, (3) the problem to be solved; the group has the expertise necessary to make a decision about the problem, (4) the time available to make a decision; less time, the more impractical it is to assign decision-making to a group. The Vroom-Yetto-Jago Model b- Vroom-Yetton-Jago (VYJ) model focuses on how much participation to allow subordinates in the decision- making process. There are two important premises: Organizational decisions should of high quality (should have a beneficial impact on performance) ? Subordinates should accept and be committed to organizational decisions that are made ? According to the VYJ model, there are five different decision styles or ways that leaders can make decisions. They range from autocratic, (the leader makes the decision) to consultative (the leader makes the decision after interacting with the followers) to group-focused (the manager meets with the group and the group makes the decision) (Figure 15.3). In Figure 15.4, the model determines when a leader should use which decision style. The model is a type of decision tree. To determine which decision style to use in a particular situation, the leader starts at the left of the decision tree by stating the problem being addressed. Then the leader asks a series of questions about the problem as determined by the structure of the decision tree until she or he arrives at decision style appropriate for the situation at the far right side of the model. Leadership Behaviors c- Two major studies series conducted to identify leadership behavior, one by Ohio State University Studies, and another by Michigan Studies. The Ohio State University Studies (OSU) The OSU studies concluded that leaders exhibit two main types of behavior: Structure behavior: this is any leadership activity that delineates the relationship between the leader ? and the leader ’ s followers or establishes well-defined procedures that followers should adhere to in performing their jobs. Consideration behavior: this is leadership behavior that reflects friendship, mutual trust, respect, and ? warmth in the relationship between leader and followers. It aims to develop good human relationship between the leader and the followers.The Michigan Studies Michigan studies pinpointed two basic types of leader behavior: job-centered behavior and employee-centered behavior. Job-Centered Behavior is leader behavior that focuses primarily on the work a subordinate is doing. The point is how well the subordinate is performing at that job. Employee-Centered Behavior is leader behavior that focuses primarily on subordinates as people. The leader is attentive to the personal needs of subordinates and is interested in building cooperative work teams that are satisfying to subordinates and advantageous for the organization. The results of OSU and Michigan Studies are very similar. Two dimensions of leader behavior are highlighted. A work dimension (structure behavior/job-centered behavior) and a people dimension (consideration behavior/employee-centered behavior. The Hersey-Blanchard Life Cycle Theory of Leadership d- The life cycle theory of leadership is a leadership concept that links leadership styles with various situations so as to ensure effective leadership. The life cycle theory is based on the relationship among follower maturity, leader task behavior, and leader relationship behavior. The leadership style should reflect the maturity level of the followers. Figure 15.6 illustrates the model. The curved line indicates the maturity level of the followers: Maturity level increases as the maturity curve runs from right to left. As one ’ s followers progress from immaturity to maturity. A manager ’ s leadership style will be effective only if it is appropriate for the maturity level of the followers. Fiedler ’ s Contingency Theory e- Leadership flexibility is the ability to change leadership style as leaders encounter different situations. However, changing leadership style is difficult due to the ingrained leadership style and success based on static a situation. According to Fred Fiedler, to overcome these obstacles, there is a need to change the leader ’ s style to fit the organizational situation. The contingency theory of leadership put forward by Fiedler emphasizes that in any given leadership situation success is determined by Leader-member relations: this is the degree to which the leader feels accepted by the followers. ? Task structure: this is the degree to which the goals —the work to be done—and other situational ? factors are outlined clearly. Position power: this is determined by the extent to which the leader has control over the rewards and ? punishments followers receive. Figure 15.7 implies that management should attempt to match permissive, passive, and considerate leaders with situations reflecting the middle of the continuum containing the octants. Fiedler ’ s theory helps destroy the myths that there is one best leadership style and the leaders are born, not made. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership f- This theory suggest that the primary activities of a leader are to make desirable and achievable rewards available to organization members who attain organizational goals and to clarify the kinds of behavior that must be performed to earn those rewards. According to the path-goal theory, leaders have four primary types of behavior: Directive behavior—this is telling followers what to do and how to do it (i.e., performance goals and ? the methods to achieve them). Supportive behavior—this is being friendly with followers and showing interest in them as human ? beings (i.e., sensitivity to the personal needs of followers). Participative behavior—this is seeking suggestions from followers regarding business operations to the ? extent that followers are involved in making important organizational decisions (i.e., determining rewards with the leader and the ways to achieve them). Achievement behavior—this is setting challenging goals for followers to reach and expressing and ? demonstrating confidence that they will measure up to the challenge (i.e., making goals difficult enough that employees will find achieving them challenging, but not so difficult that may give rise to a give up for them). This theory suggests that leaders will be successful if they appropriately match these four types of behavior to situations that they face. 4. Leadership Today Today organizations are emphasizing leadership styles that concentrate on getting employees involved in the organization and giving them the freedom to use their abilities as they think best. There are four leadership styles that have recently emerged to suit the new situations. Transformational Leadership: this is the leadership that inspires organizational success by profoundly ? affecting followers ’ beliefs in what an organization should be and their values such as justice and integrity. This is also called charismatic or inspirational leadership. Transformational leaders perform several important tasks; (1) they raise followers ’ awareness of organizational issues and their consequences, (2) they create a vision of what the organization should be, build commitment to that vision, and facilitate organizational changes that support that vision. Coaching: this is leadership that instructs followers on how to meet the special organizational ? challenges they face. The leader identifies inappropriate behavior in followers and suggests how th ey might correct that behavior. Superleadership: this is leading by showing others how to lead themselves. If superleaders are ? successful, they develop followers who are productive, work independently, and need only minimal attention from the superleader. Servant Leadership: leaders view their primary role as helping followers in their quests to satisfy ? personal needs, aspirations, and interests. Servant leaders see their pursuit of their own personal needs, aspirations, and interests as secondary to the follo wers ’ pursuit of these factors. Entrepreneurial Leadership: this is leadership based on the attitude that the leader is self-employed. ? They act as if they are playing a critical role in the organization. Also, they behave as if they are taking the risk of losing money but will receive the profit if one is made.