Yönetim Esasları - I Management fatihbook.com (Halil Zaim) man101 - 1 - Managerial Principles • Planning • Organizing • Leading • Controlling 3 Important Concepts • Goals • Structure • People MAN-101 MANAGEMENT The smallest organization is family and the biggest org. is government (Otobüs durağında bekleyen insanlar bir organizasyon oluşturmaz, çünkü amaçları bir değil) 3 Levels of Managers + Non-Manager Management: Doing something with other people Efficiently: Getting reaching the goals with the list possible Effectiveness: Doing the right things Management decide resource allegation 02 october Giving decision Application and operation part High efficiency = Less resource Some Skills Managers Must Have (These skills are change position of manager) • Technical Skills o A man specialized o Improve our respect amount the workers o If you don’t know technique, you can’t manage, control • Interpersonal Skills: A manager’s ability to work with, understand, mentor, and motivate others, both individually and in groups o You must behave not to close, not to away o You must know where the behave how o Advantage: Solve problems very easily • Conceptual Skills: A manager’s mental ability to coordinate all of the organization’s interests and activities o Ability of seeing hole picture (wide view, vision, see future) o Solve problem step by step o Separate levels fatihbook.com (Halil Zaim) man101 - 2 - THE CLASSICAL APPROACH Free Market Capitalism: If you have money, you can do business The Classical Approach • Problem is clear • There is only one objective • All alternatives are known • Preferences are clear • There is no restrict about time and source - Lower Level Management Analysis (bilimsel yönetim anlayışı) - observation - experiment 1) Frederick W. Taylor - Find special work - Divide process - Small segments 2) Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth - Motion study 3) Henry L. Gantt - Scheduling Innovation - Rewarding Innovation - Comprehensive Analysis of Management (yönetim süreci anlayışı) Henri Fayol General principles 1. Division of work 2. Authority (Responsibility) 3. Discipline 4. Unity of command 5. Unity of direction 6. Subordination of individual to general interests 7. Remuneration (ödeme) 8. Centralization: decision should be given from center of organization 9. Scalar chain 10. Order 11. Equity: You must be equal 12. Stability of tenure of personnel 13. Initiative (insiyatif) 14. Esprit de corps (takım ruhu) Bureaucracy: defining the rules (Weber) Advantage of bureaucracy: defends right of government resources. Limitations of Classical Approach 1. Human side is neglected (insan unsuru ihmal edilmiştir) - If you apply right things, everything will be true - Inside factors influence our performance 2. Rationalism (rasyonel düşünce esastır) - Use your logic - If there is a rule, you have to apply. No excuse - Not humanity 3. Organizations are considered as closed systems (organizasyonlar kapalı sistemler olarak ele alınmıştır) (Henri Fayol’s) MANAGEMENT PROCESSES 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Commanding 4. Coordinating 5. Controlling Tekstil: ayakkabı, halı, deri, perde, kumaş www.bilgiyonetimi.org Before Industrial Revolution - Based on agriculture - Craft Production - 3 main economic facilities are agriculture, craft and trade - Relationship between farmer and workers is very close (like father and son) After Industrial Revolution - Stopped build huge companies which has though people - Much and more cheaper products destroyed craft - Cities start to be center of mess production - Changed relationship amount people - People start to work in factories with mercy of boss (because thousands of people waiting for job) - Boss have higher power 09 october fatihbook.com (Halil Zaim) man101 - 3 - THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS 1. People don’t like work and try avoid it 2. Managers must control and force them to work 3. People prefer to be directed to avoid responsibility THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONS 1. People do not dislike work 2. People like to be motivated to reach objectives to which they are committed 3. People seek responsibility under favorable conditions 4. People have capacity to contribute 5. People work harder when they are motivated Recognizing the Human Variable The Human Relations Movement (There are not absolute rights and wrongs) The Beginning of the Management Science Approach Observe Construct Deduce Test Management Science Today Characteristics of Management Science Applications (Change according to situations) Main challenges of using the contingency approach Perceiving Choosing Implementing THE SYSTEM APPROACH Textile industry in Turkey is subsystem of the greater system or Global Textile Industry The Hawthorne Studies He made experiments on workers then understand motivation is influence of performance 16 october WOOL CORP. COTTOON CORP. Textile in Turkey Middle East & East Europe Global Textile Industry fatihbook.com (Halil Zaim) man101 - 4 - The Management System Major parts: - Organizational input - Organizational process - Organizational output: Product, income, tax Total Quality Management Organizasyonun bir bütün olarak sürekli gelişmesini ve müşterilere daha fazla değer sunmasını hedefleyen bir yönetim anlayışıdır. 1. Employee involvement (Çalışanların Yönetime Katılması) Works have to be include system Quality Circles: Group of people come together and discusses the problems of company and gives suggestions to managers. If they apply, they will take bonus money. - Improves loyalty of workers - Workers aren’t isolated from company. - Workers don’t be burn out. Burn out: lose hopes about future - Thanks to quality circles we can learn problems in real scene Cross Functional Teams Finance Marketing Produce Project A 3 5 10 Project B 4 3 12 Project C 5 6 8 Self-Managed Teams - They are manager themselves - They are free - Boss looks at result Worker’s participations 2. Focus on Customer (Müşteri Memnuniyeti) - Internal Customer : Workers - External Customer : Buyers (Without satisfied our workers, we can’t satisfy buyers) HOMEWORK What is the “EFQM”? Read articles, resources and write a summer by hand in 1 paper Input Process Output Environment Customers Competitors Government Suppliers Cross Functional Teams 23 october fatihbook.com (Halil Zaim) man101 - 5 - 3. KAIZEN (Continuous Improvement) (sürekli gelişim) - You have to improve all the time - Produce cheapest, fastest and without errors - You have to go step by step 4. Senior management support (Üst Yönetim Desteği) - In every managerial effort - cost/profit balance - give clear and certain objectives and apply them courageously (cesurca) Business Today 1. Technology Technology influence in terms of production Com. Addit Design (CAD): Designs aren’t static Com. Addit Manufactories (CAM): Automatic, no hand touch. Only program machine. Extremely easily to change style 2. Flexibility (Produce stable way) Numerical: Change the produce according to need of customer - Production is made unit small - Small factories produce for one company (fason üretim) - Sub-Contractor - Different independent firms - They have network - Core Company put them together and organize network Functional: Whatever buyers wanted, produce (Change produce according to demand) Product Life Cycle Production Styles Traditional Modern Mass production Mass Customization (Produce according to need specific) Core Company (VESTEL) Color Sub-Cont. Marketing Logistics Plastic Sub-Cont. Entrance Development Maturity Decline 30 october fatihbook.com (Halil Zaim) man101 - 6 - Globalization 1. Finance - Push the button and transfer money 2. Goods and Services Market 3. Labor - Least global market but steel global Changing Nature of Competition Costumer profile is changed Knowledge is at the center (functions of production) Shifting from manufacturing to services - Service quality is more than important produce quality - Global strategy is important Global strategy, local marketing: never underestimate local values PLANNING - Defining the objectives - Defining how to reach our objectives Planning and Performance Type of Plans • Strategic: Planning/objectives over all the company Mission: general aim of existence Vision : long term ideas (gerçekleştirilebilecek hayaller) • Strategic Objective: Long run and related entire organization. For example expectation of annual growth (yıllık büyüme beklentisi) • Tactical (Departmental) Objective: What has a company do for to reach its strategic objective - Production - Human Resource Management - Financial - Marketing • Operational Objective: more flexible and detail objectives Directional and Specific Plans Management by Objectives (MBO) - Team members come together - Every employees include decision process - Control mechanism provided by the employees Elements of MBO - Goal specificity - Participative decision making - Explicit time period for performance - Performance feedback Setting Employee Objectives - Identify an employee’s key job tasks. - Establish specific and challenging goals for each key task. - Allow the employee to actively participate. - Prioritize goals. - Build in feedback mechanisms to assess goal progress. - Link rewards to goal attainment. Key Job Task: Main duties of the workers 06 november Objective must be SMART - Specific (kuruma özel) - Measurable (ölçülebilir) - Achievable (uygulanabilir) - Related (ilgili) - Time (zaman) PROJE HAKKINDA BDLGD 1. Anketleri Word’de analiz et (Çıktı) - Giriş (Niye bu ödevi yapıyoruz) (Firmalar hakkında kısa bilgi) - Sonuç - Değerlendirme (Yorum yap) (Yüzde analizi yap) 2. Excel’e aktar verileri (Online) - Anketleri numarala (kodla) - a=1, b=2, c=3, d=4, … Soru 1 Soru 2 Soru 3 Anket 1 3 1 4 Anket 2 1 3 2 : : : : 3. Powerpoint (En fazla 5 sayfada özetle) Directional - General ideas - Flexible plans that set out general guidelines. - “Go from here to there” (outcome- focus) Specific - Plans that have clearly defined objectives - “What, when, where, how much, and by whom” (process- focus) fatihbook.com (Halil Zaim) man101 - 7 - Strategic Management - Define the Objective - Define the Strategy - Implement Strategy - Control Strategy S strengths internal W weakness O opportunity external T thereat External Environment - Economic Environment - Social and Cultural Env. - Geographic Env. - Technologic Env. - Legal-Politic Env. - Business Env. (costumers,subcontractors,partners) SWOT analysis: Analysis of an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in order to identify a strategic niche that the organization can exploit - job analysis - defining the jobs - define job requirements: define necessary skills - not personal - process analysis - define inputs and outputs - organization analysis - define the structure of organization - decide hierarchy • Growth Strategy (Büyüme Stratejisi) A strategy in which an organization attempts to increase the level of its operations. (make new factory) o Direct Expansion: Involves increasing a company’s size, revenues, operation, or workforce. o Merger: Occurs when two companies, usually of similar size, combine their resources to form a new company. (two company come together) (avea) o Acquisition: Occurs when a larger company buys a smaller one and incorporates the acquired company’s operations into its own. (one company buy another company) (Vodafone) Strategic Partner - Keep names - Ex: Carrefour SA, Fijitsu Siemens • Competitive Strategies (Rekabet Stratejisi) Strategies that position an organization in such a way that it will have a distinct advantage over its competition: o Cost-leadership strategy (try to cut cost) Becoming the lowest-cost producer in an industry. Quality problems (china) o Differentiation strategy Attempting to be unique in an industry within a broad market. o Focus strategy (focus on small segments) Attempting to establish an advantage (such as cost or differentiation) in a narrow market segment. • Sustaining a Competitive Advantage - cautiously development (istikrarlı büyüme) - consider next generation - develop together with environment o Factors reducing competitive advantage Evolutionary changes in the industry Technological changes Customer preferences Imitation by competitors o Defending competitive advantage Patents, copyrights, trademarks, regulations, and tariffs Competing on price Long-term contracts with suppliers (and customers) • Evaluating Strategy Strategy Strategy Formulation Formulation Evaluation Evaluation Implementation Implementation and Execution and Execution Strategy Strategy Formulation Formulation Evaluation Evaluation Implementation Implementation and Execution and Execution Quality as a Strategic Weapon • Benchmarking - The search for the best practices among competitors or noncompetitors that lead to their superior performance. • ISO 9000 series - Standards designed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that reflect a process whereby independent auditors attest that a company’s factory, laboratory, or office has met quality management requirements. 13 november 20 november fatihbook.com (Halil Zaim) man101 - 8 - Six Sigma - A philosophy and measurement process developed in the 1980s at Motorola. - To design, measure, analyze, and control the input side of a production process to achieve the goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million parts or procedures. - A philosophy and measurement process that attempts to design in quality as a product is being made. Foundations of Decision Making - Top level managers must be careful while they give decision - Main responsibilty of maneger is giving decision - Anything else can’t be delegated Decision-Making Process Identify real problem (can’t see hole picture) (if we are cancer and doctor say us you are flu, real problem is cancer) Identify decision criteria (What are our main criteria? What we want to achieve?) (we have to define right criteria to make the decision) Defining the scope is important because our resources are limited Allocation of weights to criteria (which criteria is more important and which is less important) FINISH http://ilyaskose.blogspot.com FINAL HAKKINDA BDLGD 1) Klasik Olacak 2) Örnek bir firma verilecek, onun hakkında soru soracak 3) Kavramların açıklamalarını isteyecek. Örnekleyerek anlatabilirmişiz. 4) Madde sorusu sormayacak 5) - Örneğin 6 soru sorduysa bunlardan sadece 5 tanesinin cevabını isteyecek. - Biz bildiğimiz beş soruyu seçip yapacağız. - Ekstra yaptığımız soruya puan vermeyecek. - Hepsini cevapladıysak ilk 5 soruyu kabul edecek.