Yönetim Esasları - II Managing Human Resources Chapter 12- Managing Human Resources Defining Appropriate Human Resources The phrase appropriate human resources refer to the individuals within the organization who make a valuable contribution to management system goal attainment. This results from their productivity in the positions they hold. Steps in Providing Human Resources To provide appropriate human resources to fill both managerial and nonmanagerial openings, managers follow four sequential steps. * Recruitment * Selection * Training * Performance Appraisal STEP 1: RECRUITMENT Recruitment is the initial attraction and screening of the supply of prospective human resources available to fill a position. Its purpose is to narrow a large field of prospective employees to a relatively small group of individuals from which someone eventually will be hired. To be effective, recruiters must know the following: * The job they are trying to fill * Where potential human resources can be located * How the law influences recruiting efforts Knowing the Job: The technique commonly used to gain that understanding is known as job analysis — aims at understanding of what a task - entails and the type of individual who should be hired to perform the task. The job analysis determines a job description — that is a list of specific activities that must be performed to accomplish some task or job and a job specification — that is a list of characteristics of the individual who should be hired to perform a specific task or job. Knowing sources of Human Resources: Recruiters must be able to pinpoint sources of human resources. Human resources specialists in - organizations continually monitor the labor market so they will know where to recruit suitable people and what kind of strategies and tactics to use to attract job applicants in a competitive market place. Sources of human resources can be categorized in two ways: Sources inside the organization and Sources outside the organization Sources inside the organization: Some individuals who already work for the organization may be well qualified for an open organization. Although existing personnel are sometimes moved laterally within an organization, most internal movements are promotions. Promotion from within has the advantages of (1 ) building employee morale , (2 ) encouraging employees to work harder in hopes of being promoted , (3) enticing employees to stay with the organization because of the possibility of future promotions Sources outside the organization : If a position cannot be filled by someone presently employed by the organization, management has available sources of human resources outside the organization. These include: Competitors — since there are several advantages to luring human resources away from competitors, this type of piracy has become a common 1. practice. It has some advantages. The individual knows the business. The competitor will have paid for the individual’s training up to the time of hire. The competing organization will probably be weakened somewhat by the loss of the individual. Once hired, the individual will be a valuable source of information about how to best compete with the other organization. Employment Agencies — such agencies help people find jobs and help organization find job applicants. They can be either public (do not charge 2. fees) or private (do charge fees). Readers of Certain Publications — Recruiters simply place an advertisement in a suitable publication. The advertisement describes the open 3. position in detail and announces that the organization is accepting applicants from qualified individuals. The type of position to be filled determines the type of publication in which the advertisement is placed. Educational Institutions — many recruiters go directly to schools to interview students close to graduation time. 4. Know ing the Law: Managers need to be aware of legislation that governs recruitment efforts. The Civil Rights Act passed in 1964 and - amended in 1972 created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce federal laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin in recruitment, hiring, layoffs, and all other employment practices. EEOC report in 1978 included the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, which requires employers to treat pregnancy, insofar as leave and insurance are concerned, like any other form of medical disability. EEO legislation protects the right of a citizen to work and obtain a fair wage based primarily on merit and performance. STEP 2: SELECTION Selection is choosing an individual to hire from all those who have been recruited. Selection is represented as a series of stages through which applicants must pass in order to be hired. In the selection process, there are two often used tools: testing and assessment centers. Testing: It is examining human resources for qualities relevant to performing available jobs. As a rule there are four types of tests. - Aptitude tests — measure the potential of an individual to perform a task. They measure general intelligence, special abilities such as 1. mechanical, clerical, or visual skills. Achievement tests — measures the level of skill or knowledge an individual possesses in a certain area. Examples are typing and 2. keyboarding tests. Vocational tests — measures an individual’s interest in performing various kinds of jobs. It is based on the assumption that certain people 3. perform jobs well because they find the job activities stimulating. Personality tests — attempts to describe an individual’s personality dimensions in such areas as emotional maturity, subjectivity, honesty, and 4. objectivity. However, managers must be careful not to expose themselves to legal prosecution by basing employment decisions on personality tests that are invalid and unreliable. There are testing guidelines when tests are used as part of the selection process. Tests must be valid and reliable . A test is valid if it measures what it designed to measure and reliable if it measures similarly time after time 1. Test results should not be used as the sole determinant of a hiring decision. Someone who does not perform well on a particular test 2. might still develop into a productive employee. Such factors as potential and desire to obtain a position should be assessed subjectively and used along with test scores. Tests should be nondiscriminatory . Many tests contain language and cultural bias that may discriminate against minorities. 3. - Assessment Centers: An assessment center is a program not a place in which participants engage in a number of individual and group exercises constructed to stimulate important activities at the organizational levels to which they aspire. These activities include participating in leaderless discussions, giving oral presentations, and leading a group in solving some assigned problem. JCPenny , Standard Oil of Ohio, and IBM have used it extensively. In general, participants are assessed according to the following criteria :- Leadership - Organizing and Planning ability - Decision making - Oral and written communication skills – Energy - Analytical ability - Resistance to stress - Behavior flexibility - Human relations competence – Originality - Self-directionSTEP 3 : TRAINING This is the process of developing qualities in human resources that will enable them to be more productive and thus to contribute more to organizational goal attainment. The purpose is to increase the productivity of employees by influencing their behavior. There are four steps in the training process: (1 ) Determining training needs , (2) Designing the training program , (3) Administering the training program , (4) Evaluating the training program 1. Determining Training Need s: Training needs are the information or skill areas of an individual or group that require further development to increase productivity of that individual or group. The training of organization members is typically a continuing activity. There are certain methods of determining which skills to focus on with established human resources . One method calls for evaluating the production process within the organization. Such factors as excessive rejected products, unmet deadlines, and high labor costs are clues to deficiencies in production-related expertise. Another method calls for getting direct feedback from employees on what they believe are the organization’s training needs . Organization members are capable of verbalizing clearly and accurately what types of training they require to do a better job. 2. Designing the Training Program : It entails assembling various types of facts and activities that will meet the established training needs. As training needs vary, so will the facts and activities designed to meet those needs. 3. Administering the Training Program : This is actually training the individuals selected to participate in the program. Various techniques exist for both transmitting necessary information and developing needed skills in training programs. Techniques for Transmitting Information : There are two techniques for transmitting information. They are lectures and programmed learning . Lectures — they are a one-way communication situation in which an instructor orally presents information to a group of listeners. The instructor does most of the talking, and trainees participate primarily through listening and note taking. An advantage of the lecture is that it allows the instructor to expose trainees to a maximum amount of information within a given time period. However, it has serious disadvantages. First, listeners are passive. There is little opportunity to clarify meanings or to check on whether trainees really understand the lecture material. Second, there is little opportunity for practice, reinforcement and knowledge of results. Thus, lecturers must make the material meaningful and intrinsically motivating to his listeners. Lastly, lecture situation makes it minimal value in promoting attitudinal and behavioral change. Programmed learning — this is a technique for instructing without the presence or intervention of a human instructor. Small parts of information that require related responses are presented to individual trainees, and trainees determine from checking their responses against provided answers whether their understanding of information is accurate. The types of responses required of trainees vary from situation to situation but usually are multiple-choice, true false, or fill-in-the-blank. The advantage of this technique is that it can be computerized and people actively participate in the learning process. Its disadvantage is that no one answers a confused question. Techniques for Developing Skills : There are two broad categories: On-the-job and classroom. On-the-job training is a technique that blends job-related knowledge with experience in using that knowledge on the job. They consist of coaching, position rotation, and special project committees . Coaching is direct critiquing of how well an individual is performing a job. Position rotation involves moving an individual from job to job to enable the person to gain an understanding of the organization as a whole. Special project committees are vehicles for assigning a particular task to an individual to furnish him or her with experience in a designated area. Classroom techniques also reflect a blend of job-related knowledge and experience. The skills addressed through these techniques can range from technical, such as computer programming skills, to interpersonal, such as leadership skills. Classroom technique develops skills through various types of management games and role playing activities. Management games requires small group of trainees to make and then evaluate various management decisions. Role-playing format involves acting out and then reflecting on some people-oriented problem that must be solved in the organization. 4. Evaluating the Training Program : Management should evaluate training programs effectiveness because they represent an investment — costs include materials, trainer time and production loss while employees are being trained rather than doing their jobs. STEP 4: PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Even after individuals have been recruited, selected, and trained, the task of making them maximally productive within the organization is not finished. The fourth step in the process of providing appropriate human resources for the organization is performance appraisal — that is the process of reviewing past productive activity to evaluate the contribution individuals have made toward attaining management system objectives. Why Use Performance Appraisals? Douglas McGregor has suggested the following three reasons for using performance appraisals. They provide systematic judgments to support salary increases, promotions, transfers and demotions or terminations. ? They are a means of telling subordinates how they are doing and of suggesting needed changes in behavior, attitudes, skills, or job knowledge. ? They furnish a useful basis for coaching and counseling of individuals by superiors. ? Handling Performance Appraisals : Several guidelines can assist management in increasing the appropriateness with which appraisals are conducted. Performance appraisals should stress both performance in the position the individual holds and the success with which the individual is attaining ? organizational objectives. Appraisals should emphasize how well the individual is doing the job, not the evaluator’s impression of the individual’s work habits (objective ? analysis of performance, not subjective evaluation of habits). Appraisal should be acceptable to both the evaluator and the subject. ? Appraisal should provide a base for improving individuals’ productivity within the organization by making them better equipped to produce. ? Potential Weaknesses of Performance Appraisals : Following pitfalls are several potential weaknesses of the appraisal process. Appraisals focus employees on short-term rewards rather than on issues that are important to the long-run success of the organization. ? Individuals involved in the process view them as a reward-punishment situation. ? The emphasis is based on completing paperwork rather than critiquing individual performance. ? Individuals being evaluated view the process as unfair or biased. ? Subordinates react negatively when evaluators offer unfavorable comments. ?