Yönetim Temelleri Merchandising Activities © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Merchandising Activities Chapter 6© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Business Categories Service: Provides services to customers ? Merchandising: ? Retail: Buy ready-to-sell goods and sell them to ? the customers Wholesale: Buy from manufacturers and sell to ? retailers Manufacturing: Produces goods and sells ? them to wholesalers© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Current Assets-Inventories Raw Material Work-in Process Finished Goods Merchandise Supplies Manufacturing Merchandising Service© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Income Statements Service revenue $XXX Expenses Salary expense X Depreciation expense X Income tax expense X Net income $ X Service Company Century 21 Real Estate Income Statement Year Ended December 31, 2007 Sales revenue $XXX Cost of goods sold XX Gross profit X Operating expenses: Salary expense X Depreciation expense X Income tax expense $ X Net income $ X Merchandising Company General Motors Corporation Income Statement Year Ended December 31, 2007 ©2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Financial Accounting, 6/e Harrison/Horngren© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Balance Sheets Current assets: Cash $X Short-term investments X Accounts receivable, net X Prepaid expenses X Service Company Century 21 Real Estate Balance Sheet Year Ended December 31, 20xx Current assets: Cash $ X Short-term investments X Accounts receivable, net X Inventory X Prepaid expenses X Merchandising Company General Motors Corporation Balance Sheet Year Ended December 31, 20xx ©2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Financial Accounting, 6/e Harrison/Horngren© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning Objective LO1 To describe the operating cycle of a merchandising company.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Operating Cycle of a Merchandising Company 1 . P u r c h a s e o f m e r c h a n d i s e 3 . C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e r e c e i v a b l e s 2. Sale of merchandise on account Cash Inventory Accounts Receivable© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Comparing Merchandising Activities with Manufacturing Activities Merchandising Company Purchase inventory in ready-to-sell condition. Manufacturing Company Manufacture inventory and have a longer and more complex operating cycle.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Retailers and Wholesalers Retailers sell merchandise directly to the public. Wholesalers buy merchandise from several different manufacturers and then sell this merchandise to several retailers.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning Objective LO2 To understand the components of a merchandising company’s income statement.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Income Statement of a Merchandising Company C o m p u t e r C i t y C o n d e n s e d I n c o m e S t a t e m e n t F o r t h e Y e a r E n d e d D e c e m b e r 3 1 , 2 0 0 7 R e v e n u e f r o m s a l e s 9 0 0 , 0 0 0 $ L e s s : C o s t o f g o o d s s o l d 5 4 0 , 0 0 0 G r o s s p r o f i t 3 6 0 , 0 0 0 $ L e s s : E x p e n s e s 2 7 0 , 0 0 0 N e t i n c o m e 9 0 , 0 0 0 $ Cost of goods sold represents the expense of goods that are sold to customers. Gross profit is a useful means of measuring the profitability of sales transactions.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting System Requirements for Merchandising Companies G e n e r a l L e d g e r A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e D a t e D e b i t C r e d i t B a l a n c e 2 0 0 7 J u n e 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 1 0 , 0 0 0 1 5 3 , 0 0 0 7 , 0 0 0 Although general ledger accounts provide useful information, they do not provide much of the detailed information needed in the daily business operations. Who owes us money?© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting System Requirements for Merchandising Companies S u b s i d i a r y L e d g e r H e a t h e r J a c o b s D a t e D e b i t C r e d i t B a l a n c e 2 0 0 7 J u n e 1 7 , 0 0 0 7 , 0 0 0 1 5 2 , 0 0 0 5 , 0 0 0 G e n e r a l L e d g e r A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e D a t e D e b i t C r e d i t B a l a n c e 2 0 0 7 J u n e 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 1 0 , 0 0 0 1 5 3 , 0 0 0 7 , 0 0 0 S u b s i d i a r y L e d g e r J a k e S p a r k s D a t e D e b i t C r e d i t B a l a n c e 2 0 0 7 J u n e 1 3 , 0 0 0 3 , 0 0 0 1 5 1 , 0 0 0 2 , 0 0 0 Control Account Subsidiary Ledgers© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting System Requirements for Merchandising Companies S u b s i d i a r y L e d g e r C D P l a y e r D a t e D e b i t C r e d i t B a l a n c e 2 0 0 7 J u n e 1 5 . 0 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 G e n e r a l L e d g e r I n v e n t o r y D a t e D e b i t C r e d i t B a l a n c e 2 0 0 7 J u n e 1 8 . 0 0 0 8 . 0 0 0 1 5 3 . 0 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 S u b s i d i a r y L e d g e r T e l e v i s i o n D a t e D e b i t C r e d i t B a l a n c e 2 0 0 7 J u n e 1 3 . 0 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 1 5 1 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 Control Account Subsidiary Ledgers© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Two Approaches Used in Accounting for Merchandise Inventories Perpetual Inventory System Periodic Inventory System© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning Objective LO3 To account for purchases and sales of merchandise in a perpetual inventory system.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Perpetual Inventory Systems The inventory account is continuously updated to reflect items on hand. Let’s look at some entries!© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Perpetual Inventory Systems On September 5, Worley Co. purchased 100 laser lights for resale for $30 per unit from Electronic City on account. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t S e p t . 5 I n v e n t o r y 3 , 0 0 0 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( E l e c t r o n i c C i t y ) 3 , 0 0 0© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Perpetual Inventory Systems On September 10, Worley Co. sold 10 laser lights for $50 per unit on account to ABC Radios. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t S e p t . 1 0 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( A B C R a d i o s ) 5 0 0 S a l e s 5 0 0 1 0 C o s t o f G o o d s S o l d 3 0 0 I n v e n t o r y 3 0 0 10 ? $30 = $300 Cost Retail© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Perpetual Inventory Systems On September 15, Worley Co. paid Electronic City $3,000 for the September 5 purchase. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t S e p t . 1 5 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( E l e c t r o n i c C i t y ) 3 , 0 0 0 C a s h 3 , 0 0 0© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Perpetual Inventory Systems On September 22, Worley Co. received $500 from ABC Radios as payment in full for their purchase on September 10. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t S e p t . 2 2 C a s h 5 0 0 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( A B C R a d i o s ) 5 0 0© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Taking a Physical Inventory In order to ensure the accuracy of their perpetual records, most businesses take a complete physical count of the merchandise on hand at least once a year.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Taking a Physical Inventory G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t D e c . 3 1 C o s t o f G o o d s S o l d 2 , 0 0 0 I n v e n t o r y 2 , 0 0 0 Reasonable amounts of inventory shrinkage are viewed as a normal cost of doing business. Examples include breakage, spoilage and theft. On December 31, Worley Co. counts its inventory. An inventory shortage of $2,000 is discovered. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Closing Entries in a Perpetual Inventory System Close Revenue accounts ? (including Sales) to Income Summary. Close Expense accounts ? (including Cost of Goods Sold) to Income Summary. Close Income Summary ? account to Retained Earnings. Close Dividends to Retained ? Earnings. The closing entries are the same!© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning Objective LO4 To explain how a periodic inventory system operates.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Periodic Inventory System No effort is made to keep up-to-date records of either inventory or cost of goods sold. Let’s look at some entries!© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Periodic Inventory System On September 5, Worley Co. purchased 100 laser lights for resale for $30 per unit from Electronic City on account. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t S e p t . 5 P u r c h a s e s 3 , 0 0 0 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( E l e c t r o n i c C i t y ) 3 , 0 0 0 Notice that no entry is made to Inventory.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Periodic Inventory System On September 10, Worley Co. sold 10 laser lights for $50 per unit on account to ABC Radios. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t S e p t . 1 0 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( A B C R a d i o s ) 5 0 0 S a l e s 5 0 0 Retail© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Periodic Inventory System On September 15, Worley Co. paid Electronic City $3,000 for the September 5 purchase. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t S e p t . 1 5 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( E l e c t r o n i c C i t y ) 3 , 0 0 0 C a s h 3 , 0 0 0© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Periodic Inventory System On September 22, Worley Co. received $500 from ABC Radios as payment in full for their purchase on September 10. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t S e p t . 2 2 C a s h 5 0 0 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( A B C R a d i o s ) 5 0 0© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Computing Cost of Goods Sold The accounting records of Party Supply show the following: Inventory, Jan. 1 $ 14,000 Purchases (during year) 130,000 At December 31, Party Supply counted the merchandise on hand at $12,000. Calculate Party Supply’s cost of goods sold for the year.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Computing Cost of Goods Sold I n v e n t o r y ( b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r ) 1 4 , 0 0 0 $ A d d : P u r c h a s e s 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 C o s t o f g o o d s a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l e 1 4 4 , 0 0 0 L e s s : I n v e n t o r y ( e n d o f y e a r ) 1 2 , 0 0 0 C o s t o f g o o d s s o l d 1 3 2 , 0 0 0 $ Cost of Goods Sold can be calculated as follows:© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Creating a Cost of Goods Sold Account G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t D e c . 3 1 C o s t o f G o o d s S o l d 1 4 4 , 0 0 0 I n v e n t o r y ( b e g i n n i n g o f y e a r ) 1 4 , 0 0 0 P u r c h a s e s 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 Now, Party Supply must create the Cost of Goods Sold account.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Creating a Cost of Goods Sold Account G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t D e c . 3 1 I n v e n t o r y ( e n d o f y e a r ) 1 2 , 0 0 0 C o s t o f G o o d s S o l d 1 2 , 0 0 0 Now, Party Supply must record the ending inventory amount.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Completing the Closing Process Close Revenue accounts ? (including Sales) to Income Summary. Close Expense accounts ? (including Cost of Goods Sold) to Income Summary. Close Income Summary ? account to Retained Earnings. Close Dividends to ? Retained Earnings. The closing entries are the same!© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning Objective LO5 To discuss the factors to be considered in selecting an inventory system.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Selecting an Inventory System F a c t o r s S u g g e s t i n g a P e r p e t u a l I n v e n t o r y S y s t e m F a c t o r s S u g g e s t i n g a P e r i o d i c I n v e n t o r y S y s t e m L a r g e c o m p a n y w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l m a n a g e m e n t . S m a l l c o m p a n y , r u n b y o w n e r . M a n a g e m e n t a n d e m p l o y e e s w a n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i t e m s i n i n v e n t o r y a n d t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t s t h a t a r e s e l l i n g . A c c o u n t i n g r e c o r d s o f i n v e n t o r i e s a n d s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t s a l e s n o t n e e d e d i n d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s ; s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y f o r u s e i n a n n u a l i n c o m e t a x r e t u r n s . I t e m s i n i n v e n t o r y w i t h a h i g h p e r - u n i t c o s t . I n v e n t o r y w i t h m a n y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f l o w - c o s t i t e m s . L o w v o l u m e o f s a l e s t r a n s a c t i o n s o r a c o m p u t e r i z e d a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m . H i g h v o l u m e o f s a l e s t r a n s a c t i o n s a n d a m a n u a l a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m . M e r c h a n d i s e s t o r e d a t m u l t i p l e l o c a t i o n s o r i n w a r e h o u s e s s e p a r a t e f r o m s a l e s s i t e s . A l l m e r c h a n d i s e s t o r e d a t t h e s a l e s s i t e ( f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e s t o r e ) .© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning Objective LO6 To account for additional merchandise transactions related to purchases and sales.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Credit Terms and Cash Discounts 2/10, n/30 Read as: “ Two ten, net thirty ” When manufacturers and wholesalers sell their products on account, the credit terms are stated in the invoice.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Credit Terms and Cash Discounts 2/10, n/30 Percentage of Discount # of Days Discount Is Available Otherwise, the Full Amount Is Due # of Days when Full Amount Is Due© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Net Cost Purchases are recorded at their net amounts. Purchase Discounts Lost are recorded when payment is made outside the discount period. Net Method© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Net Cost On July 6, Play Clothes purchased $4,000 of merchandise on credit with terms of 2/10, n/30 from Kid’s Clothes. Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Net Cost G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 6 I n v e n t o r y 3 , 9 2 0 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( K i d ' s C l o t h e s ) 3 , 9 2 0 $4,000 ? 98% = $3,920 On July 6, Play Clothes purchased $4,000 of merchandise on credit with terms of 2/10, n/30 from Kid’s Clothes. Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Net Cost G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t On July 15, Play Clothes pays the full amount due to Kid’s Clothes (within discount period) . Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Net Cost G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 1 5 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( K i d ' s C l o t h e s ) 3 , 9 2 0 C a s h 3 , 9 2 0 On July 15, Play Clothes pays the full amount due to Kid’s Clothes (within discount period) . Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Net Cost Now, assume that Play Clothes waited until July 20 to pay the amount due in full to Kid’s Clothes (out of discount period) . Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Net Cost G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 2 0 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( K i d ' s C l o t h e s ) 3 , 9 2 0 P u r c h a s e D i s c o u n t s L o s t 8 0 C a s h 4 , 0 0 0 Nonoperating Expense Now, assume that Play Clothes waited until July 20 to pay the amount due in full to Kid’s Clothes. Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Gross Invoice Price Purchases are recorded at their gross amounts. Purchase discounts taken are recorded when payment is made inside the discount period. Gross Method© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Gross Invoice Price G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t On July 6, Play Clothes purchased $4,000 of merchandise on credit with terms of 2/10, n/30 from Kid’s Clothes. Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Gross Invoice Price G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 6 I n v e n t o r y 4 , 0 0 0 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( K i d ' s C l o t h e s ) 4 , 0 0 0 On July 6, Play Clothes purchased $4,000 of merchandise on credit with terms of 2/10, n/30 from Kid’s Clothes. Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Gross Invoice Price On July 15, Play Clothes pays the full amount due to Kid’s Clothes (within discount period) . Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Gross Invoice Price G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 1 5 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( K i d ' s C l o t h e s ) 4 , 0 0 0 C a s h 3 , 9 2 0 P u r c h a s e D i s c o u n t s T a k e n 8 0 Reduces Cost of Goods Sold $4,000 ? 98% = $3,920 On July 15, Play Clothes pays the full amount due to Kid’s Clothes (within discount period) . Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Gross Invoice Price Now, assume that Play Clothes waited until July 20 to pay the full amount due to Kid’s Clothes (out of discount period). Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Recording Purchases at Gross Invoice Price G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 2 0 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( K i d ' s C l o t h e s ) 4 , 0 0 0 C a s h 4 , 0 0 0 Now, assume that Play Clothes waited until July 20 to pay the full amount due to Kid’s Clothes (out of discount period). Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Returns of Unsatisfactory Merchandise On August 5, Play Clothes returned $500 of unsatisfactory merchandise purchased from Kid’s Clothes on credit. Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Returns of Unsatisfactory Merchandise G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t A u g . 5 A c c o u n t s P a y a b l e ( K i d ' s C l o t h e s ) 5 0 0 I n v e n t o r y 5 0 0 On August 5, Play Clothes returned $500 of unsatisfactory merchandise purchased from Kid’s Clothes on credit. Prepare the journal entry for Play Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Transportation Costs on Purchases (Freight-in) Transportation costs related to the acquisition of assets are part of the cost of the asset being acquired.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Computing Net Purchases Net purchases ? Purchases + Freight-in – Purchase returns & allowances – Purchases discount Net purchases© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Now, let’s talk about sales!© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Computing Net Sales Net sales ? Sales revenue – Sales returns & allowances – Sales discounts Net sales© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Transactions Relating to Sales C o m p u t e r C i t y P a r t i a l I n c o m e S t a t e m e n t F o r t h e Y e a r E n d e d D e c e m b e r 3 1 , 2 0 0 7 R e v e n u e S a l e s 9 1 2 , 0 0 0 $ L e s s : S a l e s r e t u r n s a n d a l l o w a n c e s 8 , 0 0 0 $ S a l e s d i s c o u n t s 4 , 0 0 0 1 2 , 0 0 0 N e t s a l e s 9 0 0 , 0 0 0 $ Credit terms and merchandise returns affect the amount of revenue earned by the seller .© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Returns and Allowances G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t A u g . 2 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( P l a y C l o t h e s ) 2 , 0 0 0 S a l e s 2 , 0 0 0 On August 2, Kid’s Clothes sold $2,000 of merchandise to Play Clothes on credit terms 2/10, n/30. Kid’s Clothes originally paid $1,000 for the merchandise. Because Kid’s Clothes uses a perpetual inventory system, they must make two entries.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Returns and Allowances G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t A u g . 2 C o s t o f G o o d s S o l d 1 , 0 0 0 I n v e n t o r y 1 , 0 0 0 On August 2, Kid’s Clothes sold $2,000 of merchandise to Play Clothes on credit terms 2/10, n/30. Kid’s Clothes originally paid $1,000 for the merchandise. Because Kid’s Clothes uses a perpetual inventory system, they must make two entries.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Returns and Allowances On August 5, Play Clothes returned $500 of unsatisfactory merchandise to Kid’s Clothes from the August 2 sale. Kid’s Clothes cost for this merchandise was $250. Because Kid’s Clothes uses a perpetual inventory system, they must make two entries. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t A u g . 5 S a l e s R e t u r n s a n d A l l o w a n c e s 5 0 0 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( P l a y C l o t h e s ) 5 0 0 Contra-revenue© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin On August 5, Play Clothes returned $500 of unsatisfactory merchandise to Kid’s Clothes from the August 2 sale. Kid’s Clothes cost for this merchandise was $250. Because Kid’s Clothes uses a perpetual inventory system, they must make two entries. Sales Returns and Allowances G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t A u g . 5 I n v e n t o r y 2 5 0 C o s t o f G o o d s S o l d 2 5 0© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Discounts On July 6, Kid’s Clothes sold $4,000 of merchandise to Play Clothes on credit with terms of 2/10, n/30. The merchandise originally cost Kid’s Clothes $2,000. Because Kid’s Clothes uses a perpetual inventory system, they must make two entries. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 6 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( P l a y C l o t h e s ) 4 , 0 0 0 S a l e s 4 , 0 0 0© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Discounts G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 6 C o s t o f G o o d s S o l d 2 , 0 0 0 I n v e n t o r y 2 , 0 0 0 On July 6, Kid’s Clothes sold $4,000 of merchandise to Play Clothes on credit with terms of 2/10, n/30. The merchandise originally cost Kid’s Clothes $2,000. Because Kid’s Clothes uses a perpetual inventory system, they must make two entries.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Discounts On July 15, Kid’s Clothes receives the full amount due from Play Clothes from the July 6 sale. Prepare the journal entry for Kid’s Clothes. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Discounts G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 1 5 C a s h 3 , 9 2 0 S a l e s D i s c o u n t s 8 0 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( P l a y C l o t h e s ) 4 , 0 0 0 $4,000 ? 98% = $3,920 Contra-revenue On July 15, Kid’s Clothes receives the full amount due from Play Clothes from the July 6 sale (within discount period) . Prepare the journal entry for Kid’s Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Discounts Now, assume that it wasn’t until July 20 that Kid’s Clothes received the full amount due from Play Clothes from the July 6 sale. Prepare the journal entry for Kid’s Clothes. G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Discounts G E N E R A L J O U R N A L D a t e A c c o u n t T i t l e s a n d E x p l a n a t i o n P R D e b i t C r e d i t J u l y 2 0 C a s h 4 , 0 0 0 A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e ( P l a y C l o t h e s ) 4 , 0 0 0 Now, assume that it wasn’t until July 20 that Kid’s Clothes received the full amount due from Play Clothes from the July 6 sale (out of discount period). Prepare the journal entry for Kid’s Clothes.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Delivery Expenses Delivery costs incurred by sellers are debited to Delivery Expense , an operating expense.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning Objective LO7 To measure the performance of a merchandising business.© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Financial Analysis Net Sales Gross Profit Margins Trends over time • Comparable store sales • Sales per square foot of • selling space Gross profit ? Net sales • Overall gross profit • margin Gross profit margins by • department and products© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008 McGraw-Hill/Irwin End of Chapter 6