Yönetim Esasları - II Motivation (2) Chapter 16 Motivation 1. The Motivation Process Motivation is the inner state that causes an individual to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goal. Motivation theories can be categorized into two basic types: process theories and content theories. Process theories of motivation are explanations of motivation that emphasize how individuals are motivated. They focus on the steps that occur when an individual is motivated. Content theories are explanations of motivation that emphasize people ’ s internal characteristics. They focus on the need to understand what people needs have and how these needs can be satisfied. 1b. Process Theories of Motivation There are four important theories that describe how motivation occurs: The Needs-Goal Theory of Motivation: Motivation begins with an individual feeling a need. This ? need is then transformed into a behavior directed at supporting or allowing the performance of goal behavior to reduce the felt need. Success in motivating employees is dependent upon understanding the personal needs of those employees. Rewards should be consistent with the employee ’ s personal needs. A higher-level title or a partnership in the firm can be more motivating than money. The Vroom Expectancy Theory of Motivation: This is a motivation theory that emphasizes that felt ? needs cause human behavior and that motivation strength depends on an individual ’ s degree of desire to perform a behavior. Motivation strength is determined by the perceived value of the result of performing a behavior and the perceived probability that the behavior performed will cause the result to materialize. Equity Theory of Motivation: Equity theory emphasizes the individual ’ s perceived fairness of an ? employment situation and finds that perceived inequities could lead to changes in behavior. When individuals believe they have been treated unfairly in comparison with their coworkers, they will react in one of the following ways to try to right the inequity: (1) some will change their work inputs to better match the rewards they are receiving. If they believe they are paid too little, they will decrease their work outputs; if they believe they are paid more, they will increase their work outputs, (2) some will try to change the compensation they receive for their work by asking for a raise or by taking legal action, (3) some will change their own perception of the inequality through distorting the status of their jobs or rationalizing away the inequity, (4) some will leave the situation rather than try to change it (quitting the job rather than enduring the inequity). The Porter-Lawler Theory of Motivation: Porter-Lawler model emphasizes that felt needs cause ? human behavior and that motivation strength is determined by the perceived value of the result of performing the behavior (value of rewards) and the perceived probability that the behavior performed will cause the result to materialize. There are also three other characteristics of the motivation process: (1) the perceived value of a reward is determined by both intrinsic rewards—come directly from performing the task and extrinsic rewards—such as when a manager counsels a subordinate about a personal problem, the manager may get some intrinsic rewards in the form of personal satisfaction at helping another individual. The manager also receives an extrinsic reward in the for m of overall salary the manager is paid, (2) the extent to which an individual effectively accomplishes a task is determined by two variables; individual ’ s perception of what is required to perform the task and the individual ’ s ability to perform the task, (3) the perceived fairness of rewards influences the amount of satisfaction produced by those rewards. 1c. Content Theories of Motivation Although identifying all human needs is impossible, several theories have been developed to help managers better understand these needs: Maslow ’ s Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow states that basic human needs can be arranged in a ? hierarchy of importance—the order in which individuals strive to satisfy them. (1) Physiological needs relate to water, food, rest, and air. Once these needs are satisfied, the motivator becomes the next level of needs in the hierarchy, (2) security or safety needs relate to the individual ’ s desire to be free from harm both bodily and economically, once these needs are satisfied, the next level will be the motivator, (3) love and belongingness needs relate to the desire of love, companionships, and be accepted by others, as they are satisfied, the behavior shifts to satisfying esteem needs, (4) esteem needs relate to the desire for respect; self-respect and respect from others, once they are satisfies, the individuals moves to the pinnacle of the hierarchy and self-actualization needs become the motivator, (5) self-actualization needs refer to the desire to maximize whatever potential an individual possesses. Alderfer ’ s ERG Theory: Alderfer identified three basic categories of needs. (1) Existence ? needs —the need for physical well-being, (2) relatedness needs—the need for satisfying interpersonal relationships, (3) growth needs —the need for continuing personal growth and development. Alderfer argues that people sometimes activate their higher level needs before they have completely satisfied all of their lower level needs and movement in his hierarchy of needs is not always upward. Argyris ’ s Maturity-Immaturity Continuum: Argyris ’ maturity-immaturity continuum furnishes ? insights into human needs. It focuses on the personal and natural development of people to explain human needs. People naturally progress from immaturity to maturity, they move: (1) from a state of passivity as an infant to a state of increasing activity as an adult, (2) from a state of dependence on others as an infant to a state of relative independence as an adult, (3) from being capable of behaving only in a few ways as an infant to being capable of behaving in many different ways as an adult, (4) from having erratic, casual, shallow, and quickly dropped interests as an infant to having deeper more lasting interests as an adult, (5) from having a short time perspective as an infant to having a much longer time perspective as an adult, (6) from being in an subordinate position as an infant to aspiring to occupy an equal or superior position as an adult, (7) from a lack of self-awareness as an infant to awareness and control over self as an adult. As individuals mature, they have increasing needs for more activity, enjoy a state of relative independence, behave in many different ways, have deeper and more lasting interests, are capable of considering long-time perspective, occupy an equal position, having more awareness of themselves and control over own destiny. McClelland ’ s Acquired Needs Theory: McClelland ’ s theory emphasizes three of many needs human ? beings develop in their lifetimes: (1) need for achievement (nAch)—desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has ever been done before, (2) need for power ( nPower)—the desire to control, influence or be responsible for others, (3) need for affiliation ( nAff)—the desire to maintain close, friendly, personal relationships. The individual ’ s life experiences determine which of these needs will be highly developed and dominate personality. They have significant implications for management. In need for achievement McClelland claims that some business people need strongly to achieve that is more motivating than the quest of profits. They set goals that are challenging, yet achievable. They do not want to fail, thus they will avoid risky tasks. People with low achievement need avoid challenges, responsibilities, and risk. In need for power, people are likely to seek advancement and to take on increasingly responsible work activities. Power-oriented managers are comfortable in competitive situations and enjoy their decision- making role. In need for affiliation, managers have cooperative and team-centered style. They prefer to influence subordinates to complete tasks through team efforts. 2. Motivating Organizational Members Managers have various strategies for motivating organization members. Each strategy is aimed at satisfying subordinates ’ needs through appropriate organizational behavior. These managerial motivation strategies are as follows: Managerial communication ? Theory X —Theory Y ? Job design ? Behavior modification ? Likert ’ s management systems ? Monetary incentives ? Nonmonetary incentives ? Managerial Communication Effective manager-subordinate communication can satisfy such basic needs such as recognition, a sense of belonging, and security. For example, a message praising for a job well done can help satisfy the subordinate ’ s recognition and security needs. Theory X—Theory Y Douglas McGregor identified two sets of assumptions. Theory X involves negative assumptions that managers use the basis for dealing with their subordinates (e.g., the average person has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it whenever he or she can). Theory Y represents positive assumptions that managers strive to use (e.g., people will exercise self-direction and self-control in meeting their objectives). McGregor considers managers who use theory X style as autocratic, whereas theory Y as democratic. However, Reddin argues that the production might be increased by using either X or Y, depending on the situation the manager faces. Reddin proposes a Theory Z—an effectiveness dimension that implies that managers who use theory X or theory Y assumptions when dealing with people can be successful, depending on their situation. Activities based on Theory Y assumptions are more apt to motivate organization members than activities based on Theory X assumptions. Job Design There are earlier and recent job design strategies. Earlier job design strategies: The negative result of job simplification and specialization is job boredom. To overcome job boredom the first attempt was job rotation—moving workers from job to job rather than requiring them to perform only one simple and specialized job over the long term. Job rotation programs are often effective for achieving training because they give individuals an overview of how the various units of the organization function. Another strategy to overcome the boredom of doing very simple and specialized jobs is job enlargement — that is the process of increasing the number of operations an individual performs in order to enhance the individual ’ s satisfaction in work. Recent job design strategies: Frederick Herzberg argued that satisfaction and dissatisfaction organization members feel as a result of performing a job are two different variables determined by two different sets of items. The items that influence the degree of job dissatisfaction called hygiene or maintenance factors, while those that influence the degree of satisfaction are called mot ivating factors or motivators. Herzberg believes that hygiene factors such as salary, working conditions supervision or company policy will not motivate people but their non existence gives rise to dissatisfaction, thus they must exist. In contrast, motivators such as responsibility, recognition, achievement, advancement or personal growth motivate employees to do a better job. Herzberg ’ s conclusion focuses on the fact that most successful organizations have both desirable hygiene and motivating factors. Another recent strategy is called flextime or flexible working hours allows workers to complete their jobs within a workweek of a normal number of hours that they arrange themselves. The choices and finishing times can be as flexible as the organizational situation allows. Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a program to encourage appropriate behavior by controlling the consequences of that behavior. Behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated, while that which is punished tends to be eliminated. Rewards are more effective than punishments in influencing behavior. Reinforcement: behavior modification asserts that if managers want their subordinates ’ behavior to be modified, they must ensure that appropriate consequences occur as a result of that appropriate behavior. Positive reinforcement is a reward that consists of a desirable consequence of behavior, and negative reinforcement is a reward that consists of the elimination of an undes irable consequence of behavior. Punishment: this is the presentation of an undesirable behavior consequence or the removal of a desirable one that decreases the likelihood that the behavior will continue. Likert ’ s Management Systems Rensis Likert concluded that management styles in organizations could be categorized into the following systems: System 1 —the management style is characterized by a lack of confidence or trust in subordinates. ? Subordinates do not feel free to discuss their jobs with superiors and are motivated by fear, punishments, and occasional rewards. Communication is downward and upward communication is viewed with suspicion. The decision-making is done at the top. System 2 —the management style is characterized by a condescending master-to servant-style ? confidence and trust in subordinates. Subordinates are not free to discuss their jobs with superiors and are motivated by rewards or potential punishments. Communication is mostly downward, upward communication may not be viewed with suspicion. Policies are made at the top, however, decisions within a prescribed framework are made at lower levels. System 3 —the management style is characterized by substantial but not complete confidence in ? subordinates. Subordinates feel free to discuss their jobs with superiors and are motivated by rewards occasional punishments, and involvement. Information flow is both ways. Upward communication is often accepted. Broad policies and decisions are made at the top while more specific decisions are made at lower levels. System 4 —the style of management is characterized by complete trust and confidence in ? subordinates. Subordinates feel completely free to discuss their jobs with superiors and are motivated by economic rewards based on a compensation system developed through employee participation and involvement in goal setting. Information flows upward, downward, and horizontally. Decision-making is spread widely throughout the organization and well coordinated. Likert suggests that as management system moves from system 1 to 4, the human needs tend to be more effectively satisfied over the long term. Managers can increase production in the short term by using system 1, because motivation by fear, threat and punishment is effective in the short run. Over the long run this style gives rise to a production decrease due to long-term nonsatisfaction of human needs and poor working relationships. Conversely, managers who use system 4 management style face decline in production initially due to the adaptation of organizational members to the new system. However, the production increases in the long run as a result of adjustment to the new system, greater satisfaction of subordinates ’ needs, and good working relationships. Monetary Incentives Money-based compensation programs such as employee stock ownership plans motivate employees to boost production by offering them shares of company stock as a benefit. Other incentive plans include lump-sum bonuses—one-time cash payments and gain sharing —a plan in which members of a team receive a bonus when their team exceeds a goal. Nonmonetary Incentives Nonmonetary means are a policy of promoting within (initially advertising jobs internally before going outside to fill vacancies) and emphasizing quality where most workers are unhappy when they know that they produce a shoddy product.