Yönetim Esasları - II Motivation © Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 1© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 2 Objectives 1. A basic understanding of human motivation 2. Insights into various human needs 3. An appreciation for the importance of motivating organization members 4. An understanding of various motivation strategies© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 3 The Motivation Process Defining Motivation ? Process Theories of Motivation ? The Needs-Goal Theory of Motivation ? The Role of Individual Needs ? The Vroom Expectancy Theory of Motivation ? Motivation and Perceptions ? Equity Theory of Motivation ? To right the inequity some will : 1. Change their work inputs 2. Try to change the compensation 3. Try to change their own perception 4. Leave the situation© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 4 The Motivation Process© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 5 The Motivation Process© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 6 The Motivation Process Process Theories of Motivation (continued) ? The Porter –Lawler Theory of Motivation ? The Motivation Process ? 1. Perceived value 2. Effectively accomplishes 3. Perceived fairness© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 7 The Motivation Process© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 8 The Motivation Process Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs ? Maslow ’ s Hierarchy of Needs ? Physiological needs ? Security needs ? Social needs ? Esteem needs ? Self-actualization needs ? Alderfer ’ s ERG Theory ? 1. Existence needs 2. Relatedness needs 3. Growth needs© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 9 The Motivation Process© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 10 The Motivation Process Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs (continued) ? Argyris ’ s Maturity-Immaturity Continuum ? 1. From a state of passivity to increasing activity 2. From a state of dependence on others to relative independence 3. From being capable of behaving only in a few ways to being capable of behaving in many different ways 4. From having erratic, casual, shallow, and quickly dropped interests to having deeper, more lasting interests 5. From having a short time perspective to having a much longer one 6. From being in a subordinate position to aspiring to occupy an equal or superordinate position 7. From a lack of self-awareness to awareness and control over self© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 11 The Motivation Process Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs (continued) ? McClelland ’ s Acquired Needs Theory ? 1. Need for achievement (nAch) ? 2. Need for power (nPower) ? 3. Need for affiliation (nAff) ?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 12 Motivating Organization Members The Importance of Motivating Organization Members ? Strategies for Motivating Organization Members ? Managerial Communication ? Theory X–Theory Y ? Job Design ? Earlier Job Design Strategies ? Job Rotation ? Job Enlargement ? Job Enrichment ? Job Enrichment and Productivity ? Flextime ? Advantages of Flextime ?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 13 Motivating Organization Members© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 14 Motivating Organization Members© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 15 Motivating Organization Members© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 16 Motivating Organization Members© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 17 Motivating Organization Members Strategies for Motivating Organization Members (continued) ? Behavior Modification ? Reinforcement ? Punishment ? Applying Behavior Modification ? 1. Giving different levels of rewards to different workers 2. Telling workers what they are doing wrong 3. Punishing workers privately 4. Always giving out rewards and punishments that are earned© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 18 Motivating Organization Members Strategies for Motivating Organization Members (continued) ? Likert ’ s Management Systems ? System 1—Lack of confidence or trust ? System 2—Condescending confidence and trust ? System 3—Substantial confidence ? System 4—Complete trust and confidence ? Styles, Systems, and Productivity ? Monetary Incentives ? Nonmonetary Incentives ?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 19 Motivating Organization Members© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 20 ? Questions