Termodinamik Termodinamik Tabloları (Duriye Bilge) Bii~iiiiiei· Arasinda Çevirme Çarpanlari Alap Basinç Enerji, isi, is, özgül enerji Güç, isi geçisi 1 m2= 104 cm2 = 106mm2 =c10-i'-km2 2 1 Pa = 1 N/m k 3·--3· 1 Pa = 10 . Pa = 10 Mpa 1 atm = 101.325 kPa (;-1,.Q1325-h~i=\ = 760 mmHg (o OC) 2 = 1.03323 kgf/cm 1_IIlIlllig= 0.1333 kPa 1 kJ.= 1000 J-= 1000 Nm =1 kPa· m3 2 1 kJ/kg '7 1000 m /s (lkWh._~~[QQkJ) 1 cal:j:= 4.184 J TITcal:j: ;;'LCi868 J 1 Cal:j:'= 4.1868 kJ 1 W = 1 J/s 1 kW =1000 W 1 hpP = 745,7 W LL ·1 ri' ( .. -c . - . 2 2 2 1 m = 1550 in = 10.7-64 ft 1 ft2 = 1"44in2 = 0.09290304* ~2t ·'1 Pa = 1.4504 x 10-4 psia = 0.020886 lbf/ft2 2 1 psia = 144 lbf/ft = 6.894757 kPa 1 atm = 14.696 psia = 29.92 inHg (30 OF) 1 inHg=_3~3_87kPa 1 kJ = 0.94782 Btu \ 1 Btu= 1.055056 kJ . - 3 = 5.40395 psia . ft = 778.16B lb . ft 1 Btullbm = 25037 ft2;s2= 2.326* kJ/kg 1 kJ/kg = 0.430 Btullbm 1 kWh = 3412.14 Btu 1 kW = 3412.14 Btu/h :::0:73756 lbf· ft/s 1 hp :::550 lbf· ft/s = 0.7068 Btu/s :::42.41 Btu/dakika =0.72J570 kW - 1 Btu/h = 1.055056 kJ/h 1 ton sogutma::: 200 Btu/dakika ,',si ve Ingiliz birimi arasinda tam çevirme çarpan!. t Ingiliz birimlerinin'kisaltmalari: in: parmak, ft ayak, yd: yarda, lbin: libre kütle, lbf: libre kuvvet + Kalori (~alorie), i g sUyii~icakligini i oc yükseltmek için gerekli isil enerji olarak tanimi,anmistir Fakat bu deg'er sicak­ likla degisir. Uluslararasi su buhari tablolarinda (LT) kullanilan kalari tam olai-ak 4.1868 J e esittir Bu deger. suyun 15 oC sicakliktaki özgül isisina esit olup, mühendisler tarafindan genellikle kulianilan degerdir Termokimyasal kalori tam olarak 4184 J'e esit olup, fizikçiler~n genellikle yegledi kle ri degerdir. Suyun oda sicakligindaki özgül isisina esittiJ~ ikisi arasindaki fark yüzde 0.06 olup gozardi'~di1ebilir Beslenme uzmanlari tarafindan kullanilan ve buyuk harDe yazilan Kalon ise gerçekte 1 kilokalari olup 1000 kalariye (LT)esittiL n Mekanik beygir g1lcü (hp) Elektriksel beygir g1lcü tam olara);: 746 W olmaktadir858 BirImler',f\rasinda Çevirme Çarpanlari HacIm Hiz Ivme Kuvvet - Kutl.e Özgül Hacim Özgül Isi Sicaklik Uzunluk Yugunluk 1 m3 = 1000 L 1 m/s = 3.60 km/h 1 m/s2 = 100 cm/s2 2 5 1 Noo 1kg· m/s = 10 dyne 1 kg[ = 9.80665N 1 kg = 1000 g 1 i;netrik ton = 1000 kg 1 m3fkg = 1000 Lfkg 3 = 1000 cm /g 1 kJ/Ckg . OC) = 1 kJ/Ckg. K) = 1J/Cg' OC) TCK) = T (OC)+ 273.15 f:i.T (K) = f:i.T (OC) 1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm 1 km = 1000 m - 3 3 1 g/cm = 1 kgIL = 1000 kg/m 1 m3 = 6.1024 x 104 in3 = 35.315 ft3 = 264.17 galon (US) 1 g;ilon (US) = 231 in3 = 3.7854 L 1 m/s = 3.2808 ft/s = 2.237 mil/h 1 mil/h = 1.609 km/h 1 m/s2 = 3.2808 ft/s2 1 ft/s2 = 0.3048* m/s2 1lbf = 32.174Ibm· ft/s2 = 4.44822 N 1 N = O.224811bf 1 kg oo2.2046622D lbm _ 1 lbrrr = 0.45359237* kg 1 slug = 32.1 74lbrn = 14.5939 kg 1 kisa ton = 2000 lbm = 907.1847 kg, 1 m3fkg = 16.02 ft3;ibm 1 ft3;ibm = 0.062428 m3fkg 1 BtulClbm . OF)= 4.1868 kJ/(kg . OC) 1 Btu/Obmol . R) = 4.1868 kJ/Ckmol : K) 1 kJ/Ckg;OC)=-O:23885-Btu/(lhm-;-°Fj-c = 0::2i885 Irtu/(lom' R) T (R) = T (' CHCI3- 119.38 CCI2Fz 120.91 CHClzF 102.92 C2H6 30,070 CZH50H ~ 46.07 CZH4 28.054 C6H'4 86.178 CH4 16.043 CH30H 32.042 CH3CI 50.488 C3HS 44.097 C3H~4-2.01rr u C:iH-,r ~ 40.065 CCI3F 137.37 28.97 R kJ/(kg. Kt 0.4882 0.2081 00520 01889 0.2968 0.1173 2.0785 2.0769 4.1240 0.09921 0.4119 0.2968 0.1889 0:2598 0.1298 0.4615 0.06332 '0:1064:' 0.1430 _ 0.0$405' 0.06964­ 0.06876 0.08Q78 0.2765 01805 0.2964 0.09647 0.5182 0.2595 0.1647 0.1885 0.1976 0.2075 0.06052 0.2870 Sicaklik K 405.5 151 584 304.2 133 417 38.4 53 33.3 209.4 44.5 126.2 309.7 154.8 430.7 647.3 2898 562' ­ 425.2 556.4 536.6 384.7 451.7 305.5 516 282.4 507.9 191.1 513.2 416.3 370 3B5 401 471.2 Basinc MPa' 11.28 4.86 10.34 7.39 3.50 7.71 1.66 023 1.30 5.50 2.73 3.39 727 5.08 7.88 22.09 5.88 492 380 4€i6 5.47 '4.01 ­ 5.17 4.88 6:38 5.12 3.03 4.64 7.95 6.68 426 4.62 5.35 438 Hacim m3Jkmol 0.0724 00749 . 01355 0.0943 00930 0.1242 0.0578 0.0649 0.0924 0.0417 0.0899 0.0961 0.0780 0.1217 0.0568 O 1186 . 0.2603 . 0.2547 0.2759 0.2403 0:2179 0.1973 0.1480 .' 0.1673 0.1242 0.3677 0.0993 0.1180 0.1430 0.1998 b.18W 0.2478 " kJ!(kg' K) birimi kPa' m3!(kg . K) birimiyle esdegerdir. Gaz sabiti R = Ru/M bagintisindan hesaplanmis olup Ru = 8.314 kJ/(kmol . K) ve M, mol kütlesidir. - Kaynak: Gordon J. Van Wylen ve Richard E. Sonntag, Fundamenta!s of C!assica! Thermodynamics, ingilizce/SI 3. düzenleme, Wiley, New York, 1986, s. 685, Tablo A.6SI. ilk yayimlandigi kaynak: K. A.Kobe ve R. E. Lynn Jr., Chemica! Review, cilt 52, s. 117-236, 1.953. 788)f~J lX;i i· i. TABLO A-2 Bazi bilinen gazlarin mükemmel gaz özgüiisilan (a) 300 K sicaklikta Gaz Hava Argon 8ütan Karbon dioksit Karbon monoksit Etan Etilen Helyum Hidrojen Metan Neon ~Azot· Oktan Oksijen Propan Su 8uhari Kimyasal formülü Ar C4H'0 CO2 CO C2H6 C2H. He H2 CH. Ne ,- N2· " CeH'B O2' C3H8 H20 Gaz sabiti R kJ/(kg' K) 0.2870 0.2081 0.1433 0.1889 0.2968 0.2765 0.2964 2.0769 4.1240 0.5182 0.4119 ·0:2968· 0.0729 0.2598 0.1885 0.4615 Cp(J kJ/(kg' K) 1.005 0.5203 1.7164 0.846 1.040 17662 1.5482 51926 14.307 2.2537 10299 1.839­ 1.7113 0.918 t.6794 18723 Co kJ/(kg . K) 0.718 0.3122 1.5734 0.657 0.744 1.4897 1.2518 3.1156 10.183 1.7354 0:6179 0:743 . 1.6385 0.658 1.4909 1.4108 k 1.400 1.667 1.091 1.289 1.400 1.186 1237 1.667 1.405 1.299 1.667 : 1:.400 1.044 1395 1.126 1.327 Kaynak: Gardan J. Van Wylen veRjehard E. Sanntag, Fundamenta/s of C/assica/ Thermodynamics, ingilizce/Si 3. duzenleme, Wiley, New York, 1986,.s.. 687, Tabla A.8SI. 789TABLOA-2 (Devam) (b) Degisik sicakliklarda -----~- Cr'o C"ii CpIJ ·C"o Ci}(i C,." kJf(kg' Ki kJf(kg· Ki k kJf(kg· Ki kJf(kg-KI k kJf(kg·K) kJf(kg· Ki k Sicaklik K Hava Karbon clioksit, (02 Karbon monoksit, CO 250 1~003 0716 1.401 0791 0.602 1314 1~039 0.743 1.400 300 1~005 0718 1.400 0.8460657 1~288 1040 0744 1399 350 1~008 0.721 1.398 0~895 0.706 1~268 1~043 0.746 1.39g. 400 1~013 0.726 1~395 0.9390750 1~252 1.047 0.751 1395 450 1.020 0~733 1.391 0.978 0.790 1.239 1.0540757 1.392 500 1~029 O~ 742 1~387 1.0140825 1229 1.063 0767 1387 550 1.040 0.753 1.381 1.0460857 1~220 1~075 0.778 1382 600 1.051 O~ 764 1.376 1~075 0:886 1.213 1~087 0790 1376 650 1063 0.775 1.370 1.102 0913 1.207 1 1000.803 1370 700 1075 0.788 1.364 1 126 0.937 1.202 1113 0816 1.364 750 1~087 0.800 1.359 1 148 0.959 1197 1~ 1260829 1358 800 1099 0812 1.354 1.!690.980 1.193 1~ 1390~842 1~353 900 1.121 0~834 1~344 1.2041.015 1 186 1~ 1630866 1343 1000 1.142 0.855 1.336 1234 1045 1.181 1185 0.888 1~335 Hidrojen, H2 Azot, N 2 Oksijen, O2 250 14~051 9.927 1.416 1.0390742 1.400 0.913 0.653 1398 300 14.307 10.183 1.405 1~039 0743 1.400 0918 0.658 1395 350 14.427 10.302 1.400 1~04 1 0744 1399 0.928 0.668 1.389 AOO~ .. -~ .. ~14.476 . '10.352 - '1.398' . 1'.044 ~n.747 ... ~ 1.397 094-1 . (]"EiB1 ~ 1382 450 14501 10.377 1.398 1.0490.752 1.395 0.956 0.696 1.373 500 - 14.513 10.389 1.397 1.0560759 1.391 0.972 0.-1i2 1.365 550 14~530 - 10~405 ~1.396 1~065 0~768 1~387 0~9380.728 1.358 - 600 14.546 10.422 - 1.396 1.075 _ -0778 1.382 1.0030.743 1.350 _ 650 14~571 10.447 1.395 1~686 O~ 789 1.376 1.017 0.758 1.~43 700 14.604 10.480 1394 1.0980.801 1~371 1.0310.771 1.337 750 14.645 10.521 1.392 1~ 1100~813 1.365 1.0430.783 1.332 800 14~695 10.510 1~390 1~ 121 0,.825 1~360 1~054 0794 1327 900 14.822 10.698 1.385 1.145 0.849 1.349 1.0740.814 1.319 1000 14983 10~859 1.380 1.1670.870 1.341 1~090 0.830 1.313 rgilMmilltQf1~K~r@fi@gak1*m:it@~h.t@®1if~:q " , " w' ?i:;-'Y-;~~fk~J%:~fi$t.'*~$»i#?~A Kaynak: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4. düzenleme, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983, s. 783, Tablo A-4M. ilk yayimlandigi kaynak: Tab/es of Therma/ Properties of Gases, NBS Bülten No. 564, 1955. 790 n--TABLO A-2 (Devam) (c) Sicakligin fonksiyonu olarak - " C"" = a + bT + cr + dr [T, K ve ("" kJ/(kmol -K) birimlerinde] Kimyasal Sicaklik % hata araligi En Madde formülü a b c d K yüksek Ort. A.zot N2 28.90 -0_1571 x 10-z 0.8081 X 10-5 -2.873 X 10-9 273-1800 0.59 0.34 Oksijen °z 25.48 1.520 x 10-2 ·-07155 X 10-5 1.312 X 10-9 273-1800 1.19 0.28 Hava 28.11 0.1967 X 10'z 04802 X 10-5 -1.966 X 10-9 273-1800 072 0.33 HidrOJen Hz 29.11 -0.1916 x 10-z 04003 X 10-5 -0.8704 X 10'9 273-1800 1.01 0.26 Karbon monoksil CO 28.16 0.1675 x 10'z 05372 X 10-5 -2.222 X 10-9 273·1800 0.89 0.37 Karbon dioksit COz 22.26 5.981 x 10-z -3.SEI1 X 10-5 7.469 X 10'9 273-1800 0.67 0.22 Su Buhari HzO 32.24 0.1923 x 1O-z 1055 X 10-5 :-3.595 x 10.9 273-1800 0.53 0.24 Azot oksit NO 29.34 -0.09395 x 10.2 09747 X 10-5 ~4.187 x 10-9 273-1500 0:97 0.36 Azot oksit NzO 24.11 5.8632 x 10-z -3.562 X 10-5 10.58 X 10-9 273·1500 0.59 0.26 Azot dioksit NOz 22.9 5.715 x 10-' '3.52 X 10-5. 7.87 X 10-9 273-1500 0.46 0.18 A",o~.at .' . NH. • 27568: ,- 2.5630, ;X .10-z. ll9.90n x "0-~ ~-.6.6909'·X io-:9 273-< 500' .' 0.91· ·0.36- Kükürt 5z 27.21 2218 x 10-z -1628 X .10~s 3.986 x 10-9 273-1BOO 0.99 0.38 KükürtdiokSit SO, 25.78 5.795 Xl0~z '3.812 x 10-5 8.612 x 10-9 273-1800 0.45 024 Xükurt iriöksit - S03 16.40 14.58 x 10-z -11.20 X 10"5 32.42 X 10-9 273-1300 0.'29 0.13 Asetilen CzHz - 21.8 9.2143 x 10-z .-6.527 X 10.-5 18.21 X 10-9 273·1500 146 0:59 Benzen C6H6 -36.22 48.475 x 10-~ -3 f.57 x 10-5 77.62 X 10.9 273-1500 0.34 Ö.20 Metano! CH,O 19.0 9.152 x 10'z -1.22 X 10-5 -8.039 X 10-9 273-1000 0.18 0.08 Etanal CzH60 19.9 20.96 x 10-2 -10.38 x 10~s 20,05 X 10-9 273-1500 0.40 0.22 Hidrojenklorür HCl 30.33 -0.7620 x 10-z 1.327 X 10-5 -4.338 X 10-9 273-1500 0.22 O.OB Metan CH, 19.89 5.024 x1O-z 1.269 x 10-5 - -11.01 X 10-9 273-1500 1.33 0.57 Etan CZH6 6.900 17.27 x 10-z ··6406 X 10-5 7.285 X 10-9 273-1500 0.83 0.28 Propan C3H8 -4.04 30.48 x 10'2 -15.72 x 10-5 31.74 X 10-9 273-1500 0.40 0.12 n·Bütan C4H10 3.96 37.15 x 10'2 -18.34 X 10-5 35.00 X 10-9 273-1500 0.54 0.24 i· -Bütan C4HlO -7.913 41.60 x 10-z -23.01 X 10-5 49.91 x 10-9 273-1500 0.25 0.13 ·n·Pentan CsH,z 6.774 45.43 x 1O-z -22.46 x 10-5 42.29 x 10.9 ., 273-1500 0.56 0.21 n·HekSan CsH•• 6.938 5522 x 1O-z -28.65 x 10-5 57.69 X 10.9 273-1500 072 0.20 Etilen CzH, 3.95 15.64 x 10-z -8.344 X 10'5 17.67 X 10-9 273-1500 0.54 .0.13 Prooilen C-jHc~ -~ --8,15 23.83 x 10-' '-12.18 x io~5 . ~ '24.62 x 10-9 273-1500 ~~ .0.73 0.17 ~~~~T<ç-: . 1 , mi ~ l'I!l@'M'''~~ilmM*3%;~~ ~ Kaynak: B. G. Kyle, Chemica/ and Process Thermodyi!amics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood elitfs, N. J., 198-4. izin alinarak kullanilmistir. 791TABLO A-3 Bazi bilinen kati ve sivilarin özgülisilari (o) 25°C sicaklikta Cp p • Cp p Kati kJj{kg' Ki kg!", 3 SIVi kJ/(kg' K} kg/m3 Alüminyum 0.900 2,700 Amonyak 4.800 602 Bakir 0.386 8,900 Etanol 2.456 783 Granit 1.017 2,700 Sogutucu akiskan-12 0.977 1,310 Grafit 0.711 2,500 Civa 0.139 13,560 Demir 0.450 7,840 Metanal 2.550 787 Kursun 0.128 11,310 Yag (hafif) 1.800 910 Lastik (yumusak) 1.840 1,100 Su 4,184 997 Gümüs 0.235 10,470 Kalay 0.217 5,730 Tahta (genel) 1.760 350-700 Kaynak.' Gordon J. Van Wylen ve Richard E. Sonntag, Fundamenta/s of C/assica/ Thermodynar(7ics, ingilizce/SI 3. düzenleme, Wiley, New York, 1986, S. 686, Tablo A- 7SI. 792 irTABLO A~3 (Devain) (b) Degisik sicakliklarda Madde Buz iilijminyum Demir Sicaklik 200 K 220 K 240 K 260 K 270 K 273 K 200 K 250 K 300 K 350 K_ 400 K 450K 500 K 20De /., Ci' kj/(kg. Ki 1.56 1.71 1.86 2.01 2.08 2.11 0.797 0859 0.902 0.929 0949 0.973 0.997 044S- Sivilar Madde GurnÜs Kuriun Bakir Sicaklik 200e 200De -173°e -50oe 2Te 1000e 2000e -173°e -1QODe -~50oe ooe 2JDe 1000e 2000G Ci' kJ/(kg' K) 0.233 0243 0.118 0.126 0.129 0.131 0.136 0254 0342 0367 0.381 0386 0393 '00403 Hal Su 1 atm, 273 K 1 atm, 280 K 1 atm, 300 K 1 atm, 320 K 1 atm, 340 K 1 atm, 360 K· 1 atm, 373 K A.monyak Day., -20De Day , 500e Sagutucu akiskan-12 Day., -40De Day .. -20be Doy:,50De Ci' kJ/(kg 4.217 4.198 4.179 4.180 4.188 4.203 4.218 4.52 5.10 0.883 0.908 102 Benzen Gliserin Civa Sodyum Propan BIZillut Etil alkol Hal 1 atm, 15°e 1 atm, 65°e 1 atm, 1Qoe 1 atm, 50ce 1 atm, 1QDe 1 atm, 315De 1 atm, 95De 1 atm, 540De 1 atm, oce 1 atm, 425De 1 atm, 7600e 1 atm,"::'5°e ~ 180 1.92 232 '2.58 01,38 0.134 1.38 1.26 241 0.144 0.164 2.43' Kaynak: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4. düzenleme, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983, s. 813, Tablo A-19M' den alinmistir.'\ ~\/ TABLO A-4 f>~~ Doymus su - Sicaklik tabidi}' Özgül hacim m3/kg Entropi kif(kg. Ki· Doyma Sicak. basinci oc kPo Tcloyma P Doymus Doymus sivi _buhar vr vg iç enerji kJ/kg Doymus sivi ur urg Entalpi kJ/kg Doymus Doymus buhar sivi Us hr hrg Doymus Doymus buhar sivi hg Sf Sfg Doymus buhar 001 06113 0.001000 206.14 0.0 2375.:3 2375.3 0.01 2501.3 2501.4 0.000 91562 9.1562 5 0.8721 0.001000 147.12 20.97 2361.3 2382.3 .20.98 2489.6 2510.6 0.0761 8.9496 9.0257 10 1.2276 0.001000 106.38 4200 2347.2 2389.2 42.01 2477.7 2519.8 0.1510 8.7498 8.9008 15 (1]6~~jiQLQQL_77. 9~ .Ji.2,99.-.2333~L_2..3.96_-1 .. ·,-62,.-99 - 2465.9._:2~'1 __ .Q.?245_ 85569 8 7814 29 . 2.339 0.001002 57.79._ 83.95 2319.0 2402.9 83.96 24~1J_ ~?~8 j. 0.2966 8.3706 8.6672 25· __ ~1-6~, 0001 ÔÜ3 43.36 104.88 2304.92409.8 104.89?:44f.32§4U) 0.3674 8.1905 8.5580 cl.9 - -74246 0.001004 32.89 12578 2290.8 2416.~~ 8.0164 8.4533 355.62.8 0.001006 25.22 146.67 2276.7 2423.4 146.68 2418.6 2565.3 0.5053 7.8478 8.3531 40 7.384 0.001008 19.52 167.56 2262.6 2430.1 167.57 2406.7 25743 05725 7.6845 8.2570 45 9.593 0.0010.10 15.26 188.44 2248.4 2436.8 188.45 2394.8 25832 0.6387 75261 8.1648 50 12.349 0.001012 12.03 209.32 2234.2 2443.5 209.33 2382.7 25921 ,07038 7.3725 .8.0763 55 15.758 0.001015 9.568 230.21 2219.9 2450.1 230.23 2370.7 2600.9 0.7679 7.2234 7.9913 60 19.940 0.001017 7.671 251.11 2205.5 2456.6 251.13 2358.5 26096 0.8312 7.0784 7.9096 65 :25.03 0.001020 6.197 27202 2191.1 2463.1 272.06 2346.2 2618.3 08935 69375 7.8310 70 31.19 0.0010:;:'3 5.042 292.95 2176.6 2469.6 292.98 2333.8 2626.8 0.9549 6.80047.7553 75: :3858'0.001026·: 4.-1'31 :" - 313.90. 2162.0 2475.9. 3l3.93 .. 2321.~ . ;;'1335.3 . \0155 6.66?9: 7:682.4 80 47.39 0.001029 3.407 334.86 2147.4 2482.2 334:91 2308.826437 1.0753 6.5369 76122 85 57.83 0.001033 2.i;l28 355:84 .2132.6 2488.4 355.90 2296.0 2651.9 1.1343 6.4102 7.5445 90 70.14 0.001036 2.361 376.85 2117.7 2494.5 376.92 22832 2660.1 1.1925 6.2866" 7.4791. 95', '84.55 0.001040 1.982. 397.88 -2102.7 2500.6 .397.96 2270.21668.1 1.2500 61659'.-7.4159 Doyma bpsmCl MPa 1.66 1927.9 2559·5 632.20 2114.3 2746:5 18418 4.9960 6.8379 - ~--~ '-- 155 0.5431 0.001096 0.3468 653.24 1910.8 2564.1 653.84 2098.6 2752.4 1.8925 4.9010 6.7935 160 06178 0.001 102 0.3071 674.87 1893.5 2568.4 675.55 2082.6 2758.1 1.9427 4.8075 6.7502 165 0.7005 0.001 108 0.2727 696.56 1876.0 2572.5 697.34 2066.2 2763.5 1.9925 4.7153 6.7078 170 07917 0.001114 0.2428 - 718.33 1858.1 2576.5 719.21 2049.5 2768.7 2.0419 4.6244 6.6663 175 0.8920 0.001 121 0.2168 740.17 1840.0 2580.2 741.17 2032.4 2773.6 2.0909 4.5347 6.6256 -~ 0.001127 0.19405 762.09 1821.6 2583.7 763.22 2015.0 27782 2.1396 4.4461 6.5857 185 1 1227 0,001134 0.17409 784.10 1802.9 2587.0 78537 1997.1 2782.4 2:1879 4.3586 6.5465 190 1.2544 0.001141 0.15654 806.19 17838 2590.0 807.62 1978.8 2786.4 2.2359 4.2720 65079 195 13978 0.001149 0.14105 82837 1764.4 2592.8 829.98 1960.0 27900 2.2835 4.1863 6.4698 794TARL() A~4 (DevaTiL) Ozgül hacim iç enerii Entalpi Ei1iropi mJ/kg kjfkg kJ/kg kJ/{kg . K) Doyma --- Sicak ... basinci Doymus Doymus Doymus Doymus Doymus Doymus DQymus Doymus oç MPg SlVI buhar S~V! buhar .sfV~ buhar sivi buhar T D Vf vg Uf Uig Us hi hig hg sf J doym3 sis s 200 15538 0.001 157 012736 850.65 1744.7 2595.3 852.45 1940.7 2793.2 2.3309 4.1014 64323 205 1.7230 0.001 164 0.11521 873.04 17245 2597.5 87504 19210 27960 2.3780 4.0172 63952 210 19062 0.001 173 0.10441 895.53 1703.9 2599.5 897.16 19007 27985 24248 39337 63585 215 2.104 0.001181 0.09479 918.14 1682.9 2601.1 920.62 1879.9 2800.5 24714 3.8507 63221 220 2.318 0.001190 0.08619 940.87 16615 26024 94362 18585 2802.1 25178 3.7683 6.2861 225 2.548 0.001 199 0.07849 963.73 1639.6 2603.3 966.78 1836.5 2803.3 2.5639 36863 62503 230 2.795 0.001209 0.07158 98674 16172 2603.9 990.12 1813.8 28040 26099 3.6047 62146 235 3060 0.001219 006537 1009.89 15942 2604.1 1013.62 17905 2804.2 26558 3.5233 61791 240 3344 0.001229 0.05976 1033.21 1570.8 2604.0 1037.32 17665 2803.8 2.7015 34422 61437 245 3648 0.001240 005471 1056.71 1546.7 2603.4 1061.23 1741.7 2803.0 2.7472 33612 6.1083 250 3973 0.001251 0.05013 1080.39 15220 2602.4 1085.36 17162 28015 2.7927 32802 60730 255 4.319 0.001263 0.04598 1104.28 1596.7 2600.9 1109.73 1689.8 2799.5 28383 31992 60375 260 4.688 0.001276 0.04221 1128.39 1470.6 25990 1134.37 1662.5 2796.9 28838 31181 60019 265 5.081 0.001289 003877 1152.74 14439 2596.6 1159.28 16344 2793.6 2.9294 3.0368 59662 270 5499 0.001302 003564 117736 14J6.3 25931 .1184.51 . J 6QEi.2. 2789] . 2.9751 2:.9551· 593D1 275· 5942 . (JOQ1:3i7 0'032'79 1202.25 13879 2590.2 1210.07 15749 2785.0 30208 28730 58938 280 6412 0.001332 0.03017 1227.46 1358.7 25861 123599 1543.6 2779.6 3.0668 27903 58571 - 285 6.909 0.001 348 - o.on 77 1253.00 1328.4 2581.4 1262.31 1511.0 2773.3 3.1130 2]070 58199 290 7436- 0.001366 0.02557 1218.92 1297.1 2576.0 128907· 14J7.1 27662 3.1594 26227 57821 295 7.993 0.001384 0.02354 13D5.2 1264.7 2569.9 1516.3 1441.8 2758.1 3.2062 2.5375 5.7437 ~~-- 8.581 0.001404 0.021 67 1332.0 12310 2563.0 1344.0 1404.9. 2749.0 3.2534 24511 5.7045 305 9.202 0.001425 0.019948 1359.3 1195.9 2555.2 1372.4 13664 2738.7 3.3010 2.3633 56643 310 9.856 0.001 447 . 0.018350 1387.1 11594 2546.4 1401.3 13260 27273 3,3493 22737 56230 315 10.547 0.001 472 0.016867 1415.5 1121.1 2536.6 1431.0 1283.5 2714.5 33982 2.Ü321 5.5804 320 11274 0.001499 0.015488 1444.6 10809 2525.5 14615 1238.6 2700.1 34480 20882 55362 330 12.845 0.001561 0.012996 1505.3 9937 2498.9 1525.3 1140.6 26659 3.5507 18909 54417 340 14586 0.001638 0.010797 1570.3 894.3 2464.6 15942 1027.9 2622.0 3.6594 16763 53357 350 1651.3 0,001740 0.008813 16419 776.6 2418~4 1670.6 893~4) 25639 3.7777 14335 5.2112 360 18651 0.001893 0.006945 17252 6263 2351.5 1760.5 720.3 24810 3.9147 1.1379 5.0526 370 21.03 0.002213 0.004925 1844.0 384.5 2228.5 1890.5 441.6 2332.1 4.1106 06865 4.7971 374.14 22.09 0.003155 0.003155 2029.6 O 2029.6 2099.3 O 2099.3 44298 O 44298 Kavnak: A4 ile A8 arasindaki tablolar, Gordon J. Van Wylen ve Richard 1:. Sonntag, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodvnamics, ingilizceISI 3. düzenleme, Wiley, New York, 1986, s. 635-651 'den alinmistir. Bu tablolar ilk olarak, Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes, Phil,ipG. Hill ve Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables, Si Birimleri, Wiley, New York, 1978 adli yayinda yer almistir. 795TABLO ,4-5 [)O:Y1TIUS su - Basinç t.ablosu '---- ÖzgÜl hacim i-c enerH Entoip; EntrooI m3/kg ~~j/kg , kj/kg kJ/(kg . K) Doyma Basinç sicak. kPa oc P Tc!oyina Doymus sivi vi Doymus buhar vg Doymus SIVI UI Doymus Doymus buhar sivi ug hi Doymus Doymus buhar sivi 001 698 0.6113 1.0 1=i 20 ? r ~::i 0.001000 206.14 0.00 23753 23753 0.01 25013 2501.4 00000 91562 9.1562 0001000 12921 29.30 23557 23850 29.30 2484.9 2514.2 01059 8.8697 89756 0.001001 8798 5471 23386 2393.3 5471 24706 2525.3 01957 86322 88279 0.001001 6700 73.48 23260 23995 7348 24600 2533.5 02607 84629 87237 2108 0001002 54.25 88.48 23159 24044 8849 24516 2540.0 0.3120 83311 86432 2408 0.001003 45.67 10104 23075 2408.5 101.05 24445 2545.5 03545 82231 85776 2896 0001J20'!......}~80 .. J21A5 __.~29.~7 _.~~1Sl_._~ 2432.~.. _~.S~i::4 04226 80520 84746 3288 ·_-·O.·dÖi 005 2819-· 13781 22827 24205 13782 2423.7 2561.5 04764 79187 83951 40.29 0.001008 19.24 16878 22617 2430.5 1illLl...9 2406.0 2574.8 OS7_Gi 7.6750 8.2515 10 45c8_L. _ 00.2.1010 14.:.~ .2.9182_._..E.~J.,_2'01L ~.2392fL.25B.4J~i_L59.Q"L __8.J.S.Q2 1-5 53.97 00010T'1---1D.02 22S:-92 22228 24487 22594 23731 2599.1 07549 72536 80085 20 6006 0.001017 7649 251.38 2205.4 24567 25140 23583 2609.7 0.8320 70766 79085 25 6497 0.001020 6.204 271.90 21912 24631 27193 23463 26182 08931 69383 7.8314 30 69.10 0001022 5.229 289.20 21792 24684 28923 2336.1 2625.3 09439 68247 77686 40 7587 0.001027 3993 31753 21595 24770 31758 23192 2636.8 10259 66441 76700 50 8133 0.001030 3.240 34044 21434 24839 34049 23054 26459 10910 65029 75939 75 9178 0.061037 2217 384.31 21124 24967 384.39 2278.6 2663.0 1.2130 62434 74564·'. Basinç MPa - - O 100' ~~ __ .200 lE:i3 16940 41736 2088~~ __,25D%~,_...1i?46 (22~80 ') .1t3?fs· L3.Q26~· EL9568 /"73!2~4\ ~ 105.99 - o.0o1o48----ci:374-g----44A·-ci"C-2069.3 2513.5 444.32 ~m:O 2685.4 1.3740 5.9104 7.2844. D.150 111.37 0.00105'3 1.1593 46694 -2052.7 25197 467.11 2226.5 2693.6 1.4336 57897 72233 0175 116.06 0.001057 1.0036 486.80 2038,1 25249 48699 22136 2700.6 14849 5.6868 71717 0200, 120.23, 0.001061 .., . .98qSZ 5QoIA9 ... .2025.0 . 2529.5 504.70;2201.9 27067._ .1.530"1· 5,0.97.o.........1.52L1 ci·225·124~ÖÖ·r·~-b.o01Ô64·· 0.7933 520.47 2013.1 2533.6· 520.72 2191.3 271·2:~ 15706 5.5173 7.0878 0.250 127.44 0.001067 071m 535.10 20021 25372 535.37 21815 27169 1.6072 54455 70527 0275 130.60 0:001070 06573 548.59 19919 2540.5 548.89 2172.4 2721.3 1.6408 5.3801 7.0209 0.300 133.55 0.001073 06058 561 15 19824 25436 56147 21638 27253 16718 5.3201 69919 0325 13630 0.001076 0.5620 572.90 1973.5 25464 573.25 21558 2729.0 1.7006 5.2646 69652 0.350138.88 0.001079 0.524358395 1965.025489 584.332148.12732.4 172755.21306.9405 0375 14132 0.001081 04914 59440 19569 2551.3 59481 2140.8 2735.6 1.7528 51647 69175 040 143.63 0.001084 0.4625604.31 194932553.6 604.742133.82738.61.77665.119368959 0.45 147.93 0.001088 04140 62277 1934.9 2557.6 623.25 2120.7 2743.9 18207 50359 6.8565 050 15186.Q~o01.093 03749 539.68 1921.6 2561.2 64023 2108.5 2748.7' 18601 4.9606 68213 '(}55 155-48 . 0.001097 ....0,3427 655.32 .19092 2564.5 665,93·, 2097.0 27530 J8973 4.8920 6 7893 0(39._._15885 0~.0Q.l101-~_c_66990 .J8~~~. :1~~J5.J,29i&':Lj=~~~g~~ 48283 -67600 065- 162:UL --0:-001104 Ü2927683.56 1]865 2570.1 6BLf28-2076"0 276Cf3 1.9627 4.7703 6733,· 070 16497 0.001108 02729 696.44 1876.1 2572.5 69722 2066.3 2763.5 1.9922 4:7158 6.7080 0.75 167.78 0.001112 0.2556 708.64 1866.1 25747 70~ 2057.0 2766.4 2.0200 4.6647 6.6847 0.80 17043 0.001115 02404 72.022 J85(36 25768 CZ21J]) 2048.0 2769.1 20462 46166 66628 Ô·S5 .172.96 0.00'1 118 0.2270 73127 18474 2578.7 73222 20394 2771.6 20716 4.5711 66421 0.90 17538 0.001121 0.2150 74183 1838.6 2580.5 742.83 2031 1 27739 20946 4.5280 66226 095 17769 0.001124 0.2042 75195 18302 25821 753.02 2023.1 2776.1 21172 4.4869 6.6041 100 17991 0.001127 019444 761.68 1822.0 2583.6 7QZ&1 2015.3 2778.1 21387 44478 65865 110 184.09 0.001133 017753 780.09 18063 2586.4 7813i 2000.4 2781.7 21792 4.3744 65536 120 187.99 0.001 139 O 16333 797.29 1791.5 25888 79865 19862 27848 22166 -43067 65233 130 191.64 0.001144 015125 81344 1777.5 2591.0 81493 19727 27876 22515 42438 64953 .; , ! i 7D67;01131..0 p,-5 (Devarn) -~_·-~----Doyma ~ ~~h~dm ~-----5:~~~i~i~-------~:~;~~-----~----~=--=_1~~~~L--~- 5icClklig, Doymus Doymus Doymus Doymus Doymus Doymus Doymus OC 51V1 buhar 5~vi buhar SIVi SiVll buhar Tduyiu;i Uf Vi; Uj !If" li/: h: ri!.>! ht; E,- Sh s" 45327 44298 5.6722 5.1777 57432 5-8.392 5.8133 5.1044 50"228 49269 48013 5.9734 56141 5552;' 54924 54323 53717 .5.3098. 52455 2.8625 26922 25364 23915 2.2544 21233 1.9962 18718 1.7485 1.6249 14994 13698 12329 10839 0.9130 06938 02216 O J 5506 36232 ].7461 J 4295 J 211 32068 32858 33596 34962 30267 :38079 3.8715 .J 9388 ·40139 41075 13110 4 4298 20993 2772 1 27580 2509. ! 2464 5 26849 26622 26376 26105 25805 2724.7 2705.5 240\37 23346 21656 27843 1571.0 1505.1 1441.3 1378.9 13171 12555 1193.6 1130J 10666 10000 . 9306 856:j 777.1 6881] 583.1 4462 14.3.4 O 121335 126700 131664 1363.26 14501 1491.3 1531.5 15711 16105 1650'1 . 1690.3 1732.0 1776.5 1826.3 18884 HO 19507 OiJcJ1149 0.14084 82870 17641 25928 83030 19597 27900 22842 41850 64593 1.50 19832 0.001154 0.13177 84316 17513 25945 84189 19473 27922 23150 41298 6444,9 175 20576 0001166 0.11349 87646 17214 25978 87850 1917<] 27964 23851 40044 63896 200 212.42 0.001177 0.09963 90644 16938 26003 90879 1890.7 27995 :24474 3.8935 6.3409 225 218.45 0.001187 0.08875 93383 1668.2 2602.0 936.49 1865.2 28017 25035 37937 62972 25 223.99 0001197 0.07998 959.11 16440 26031 96211 2803: 25547 37028 62575 3.9c~_2-3,'h9lJ_ ~..J2ilQ12~_ 1004}8._ 1599.2 __ ~04.~1_~4.? __ .~179~J~_~~280_'l~ __ 2~Q1~?.... __~<5-"cl2. __ ~~9 -3-5 242.60 0001235 005707 104543 15583 2603.7 104975 17537 28034 27253 3.4000 61253 4 .26023 .~ 1714.1 22.014 27964 32737 -....._- ..-~ 5 286 003944 25971 6 275.64 0.001319 0.03244 1205.44 2589.7 285.88 0.001 351 002737 125755 2580.5 295.06 0001 384 0.02352 130557 25698 30340 0.001418 002048 135051 1207.3 25578 311.06 0.001452 0018026 139304 11514 25444 31815 0.001489 0015987 14337 10960- 25298 324.75 0.001 527 0014263 1473.0 1040.7 2513 7 330.93 0001 567 0012780 1511.1 985.0 24961 33675 0001611 0.011485 1548.6 9282 2476.8 342.24 0.001 658 00103371585.6 8698 2455.5 34744 0,001 Jl1 :0.009306 1622.7 . 8E190' . 2431.t 35237 0.001 770 0008364 16602 7448 24050 357.06 0.001840 0007289 1698.9 675.4 2374.3 361.54 0.001 924 O.ooti 657 1739.9 598.1 2338 1 365.81 0002036 0.005834 1785.6 5075 2293.0 369.89 0.002 207 0004 952 1842.1 388.5 2230.6 742 0003568 1961.9 125.2 2087.1 16 22 2209 8 9 LO 11 12 13 14 15 '1'7 . 18 19 20 -21TABlO A-6 Kizg~insu buhari il 5 Id/k!,! kJjt~ . i<} LI ,,-J/I I •. ~ i----- ---, --~ ~ ,~ p ~ O.(H M!"" 145.cWCI* ! = 0.05 ,,,~p,,(6-i.33"Cj i P = O.-iOMPa !99.63°CI ----i--- ? , 14_674' 2437.9 2584.7 8.1502 3.240 24839 2645.9 7.5939 i 16940 25061 26755 7.3594 14_369 24439 2592.6 81749 17.195 25155 2687.5 8.4479 3418 2511.6 26825 76947 1.6958 25067 26762 7.3614 19.512 2587.9 27830 8.6882 3.889 2585.6 27801 7.9401 1.9364 25828 2776.4 76134 21.825 2661.3 2879.5 89038 4356 2659.9 2877.7 8.1580 2172 2658. 1 28753 78343 24136 27360 2977.3 9.1002 4.820 2735.0 29760 8.3556 2406 21337 29743 80333 26.445 2812.1 3076.5 9.28-13 5284 2811.3 30755 8.5373 2.639 2810.4 3074.3 82158 31063 2968.9 3279.6 9.6077 6209 2968.5 3278.9 8.8642 3.103 2967.9 3218.2 85435 J5.579 3132.3 3489.1 9.8978 7.134 3132.0 3488.7 9.1546 3.565 3131.6 3488.1 8.8342 40.295 3302.5 3705.4 10.1608 8.057 3302.2 37051 9.4178 4.028 3301.9 3704.4 9.0976 44.911 34796 3928.7 10.4028 8.981 3479.4 3928.5 9.6599 4.490 3479.2 3928.2 9.3398 49_526 36638 4159.0 10.6281 9.904 3663.6 41589 9.8852 4.952 36635 4158.6 95652 54141 38550 4396.4 10.8396 10.828 3854.9 4396.3 100967 5414 3854.8 43961 9.7767 28757 40530 4640.6 11.0393 11751 4052.9 4640.5 10.2964 5.815 40528 46403 9.9764 63.372 4257.5 4891.2 11.2287 12.674 4257.4 4891 1 10.4859 6331 42573 48910 10.1659 67.987 4467.9 5147.8 11.4091 13.597 4467.8 5147.7 10.6662 6799 44677 5147_6 10.3463 72.602 4683.7 5409.7 11.5811 14521 4683.6 5409.6 108382 7.260 4683.5 54095 10.5183 P ~ 0.20 MPa i1:ro.23°C! P = O.30MPa (133.55°(:1 P = 0.40 MPa {i43.S3"Cj S 0885·7 . 2529S·2706.7 ·7:1272 -0.6058'· . 254·3.6 27253 .. G.991B . ,-0.4625 .. 25536 2738.;;;. 68959 09596 2576.9 2768:8 7.2795 0.6339 2570.8 2761.0 70778 0.4708 25645 2752.8 6.9299 1.0803 26544 2870."5 7.5066 0.7163 _ 2650.7 2865.6 7.3115 0.5342 2646.8 28605 71706 - 1.1988 2731.2 2971.0 77086 - 07964 2728T 2967.6 7.5166 0.5951 27261 2964.2 7.3789 1.3162- - 2808.6' . 3071.8 7.8926 0.8753 2806.7 3069.3 - 7.7022 0.6548 28048 3066.8 7.5662 15493 2966.7 3276.6 8.2218 1.0315 2965.6 3275.0 . 8.0330 0.7726 29644 3273:4 7.8985 1.7814 31308 3487.1 8.5133 1.1867 3130.0 3486.0 8.3251 0.8893 3129.2 3484.9 8.1913 2013 3301.4 3704.0 87770 1.3414 3300.8 37032 8.5892 1.0055 3300.2 3702.4 8.4558 2.244 34'788 3927.6 90194 1.4957 3478.4 3927.1 8.831L 1.1215 3477.9 3926.5 ]369.87 2475 36631 4158.2 92449 1.6499 3662.9 4157.8 9.0576 1.2372 3662.4 41573 8.9244 2.705 38545 4395.8 9.4566 1.8041 3854.2 4395.4 9.2692 1.3529. 3853.9 4395.1 9.1362 2937 40525 4640.0 9.6563 1.9581 4052.3 46397 9.4690 1.4685 40520 4639.4 93360 3.168 4257.0 48907 9.8458 i 2.1121 4256.8 4890.4 9.6585 1.5840 42565 4890.2 95256 3.399 44675 5147.5 10.0262 2.2661 4467.2 5147.1 9.8389 1.6996 4467.0 5146.8 9.7060 3630 4683.2 5409.3 10.1982 24201 4683.0 5409.0 10.0110 1.8151 4682.8 5408.8 9.8780 P = O.50MP •• (151.8soq P = O.6Q!J1Pa (158.85°CI P = 0.80 MP", 1170.4;rci S 0.3749 2561.2 27487 6.8213 03157 2567.4 27568 6.7600 02404 25768 27691 6.6628 04249 26429 2855.4 7.0592 0.3520 26389 2850.1- ~6.9665~ -0.2608 26306 28393 . 6.8158_ 0.474>t 2723.5 2960.7 7.2709 0.3938 2720.9- 2957.2 7.1816 0.2931 2715.5 2950.0 7.0384 0.5226 2802.9 3064.2 .. J.4'ill9._ ..... .•.O.A3M 280to -193~·_El·-c-LF24. 0.3241 2797.2 3056.5 7.2328 6.5701 28826 3167.7 7.6329 0.4742 2881.2 316_5.7 7:5464 0.3544 2878.2 3161.7 74089 06173 2963.2 3271.9 7.7938 0.5137 2962.1 3270.3 7.7079 0.3843 2959.7 3267.1 7.5"116 0.7109 3128.4 3483.9 80873 0.5920 3127.6 3482:8 g·.0021 0.4433 3126.0 34806 7.8673 08041 3299.6 370i.7 7.3522 0.6697 32991- 3700.9 8.2674 0.5018 3297.9 3699.4 8.1333 08969 3477.5 3925.9 8.5952 07472 3477.0 3925.3 8.5107 0.5601 3476.2 3924.2 83770 09896 3662.1 4156.9 8.8211 08245 3661.8 4156.5 8.7367 0.6181 3661.1 41556 8.6033 10822 38536 4394.7 9.0329 i 0.9017 3853.4 4394.4 8.9486 0.6761 3852.8 4393.7 8.8153 1. 1747 40518 4639.1 9.2328 0.9788 4051.5 4638.8 9.1485 0.7340 4051.0 46382 90153 1.2672 4256.3 4889.9 9.4224 1.0559 4256.1 4889.6 93381 0.7919 42556 4889.1 92050 13596 44668 51L16.6 9.6029 i 1.1330 4466.5 51463 95185 08497 4466. i 5145 ':3 93855 1.4521 4682.5 5408.6 9 7749 1.2101 4682.3 5408.3 9.6906 0.9076 ,16818 5407.9 95575 800 500 r oc; 1200 900 1000 1100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1300 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 Doym ·200 250 2QQ 350 400 500 600 700 Ooym 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 ~ Parantez içinde verilen sicaklik, belirtilen basinçta dayrna sicakligidir. t Belirtilen basineta doymus bu han n özeiikleri. 79f3TABLO A-6 (Devarn) r:- ----- r u /i h i /i , n S 'C m3/k9 kJ/kg 1<.1{"'9 kJ/lkg: Ki m3 kg !