Fiziksel jeoloji Timetable Famennian Givetian Eifelian Lochkovian Pragian Frasnian Emsian Ludfordian Gorstian Homerian Sheinwoodian Telychian Aeronian Rhuddanian P h a n e r o z o i c P a l e o z o i c Pridoli Ludlow Wenlock Llandovery Upper Middle Lower Devonian 411.2 ±2.8 416.0 ±2.8 422.9 ±2.5 428.2 ±2.3 Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian Upper Upper Middle Middle Lower Lower Upper Upper Middle Middle Lower Lower P h a n e r o z o i c P a l e o z o i c M e s o z o i c Carboniferous Permian Jurassic Triassic 150.8 ±4.0 155.7 ±4.0 161.2 ±4.0 164.7 ±4.0 167.7 ±3.5 171.6 ±3.0 175.6 ±2.0 183.0 ±1.5 189.6 ±1.5 196.5 ±1.0 199.6 ±0.6 203.6 ±1.5 216.5 ±2.0 228.0 ±2.0 237.0 ±2.0 245.0 ±1.5 249.7 ±0.7 251.0 ±0.4 318.1 ±1.3 260.4 ±0.7 253.8 ±0.7 265.8 ±0.7 268.0 ±0.7 270.6 ±0.7 275.6 ±0.7 284.4 ±0.7 294.6 ±0.8 299.0 ±0.8 303.9 ±0.9 306.5 ±1.0 311.7 ±1.1 Tithonian Kimmeridgian Oxfordian Callovian Bajocian Bathonian Aalenian Toarcian Pliensbachian Sinemurian Hettangian Rhaetian Norian Carnian Ladinian Anisian Olenekian Induan Changhsingian Wuchiapingian Capitanian Wordian Roadian Kungurian Artinskian Sakmarian Asselian Gzhelian Kasimovian Moscovian Bashkirian Serpukhovian Visean Tournaisian Penn- sylvanian Missis- sippian 359.2 ±2.5 345.3 ±2.1 326.4 ±1.6 374.5 ±2.6 385.3 ±2.6 391.8 ±2.7 397.5 ±2.7 407.0 ±2.8 443.7 ±1.5 436.0 ±1.9 439.0 ±1.8 418.7 ±2.7 Ediacaran Cryogenian Tonian Stenian Ectasian Calymmian Statherian Orosirian Rhyacian Siderian Neo- proterozoic Neoarchean Mesoarchean Paleoarchean Eoarchean Meso- proterozoic Paleo- proterozoic Archean Proterozoic P r e c a m b r i a n ~630 850 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2050 2300 2500 2800 3200 3600 Upper Middle Lower Selandian Tortonian Serravallian Langhian Burdigalian Aquitanian Ypresian Chattian Rupelian Priabonian Danian Thanetian Bartonian Lutetian Campanian Santonian Turonian Coniacian Albian Aptian Berriasian Barremian Valanginian Hauterivian Maastrichtian Cenomanian Piacenzian Messinian Zanclean Gelasian P h a n e r o z o i c C e n o z o i c M e s o z o i c 1.806 0.126 0.781 2.588 5.332 7.246 11.608 13.82 15.97 20.43 70.6 ±0.6 65.5 ±0.3 83.5 ±0.7 85.8 ±0.7 89.3 ±1.0 93.5 ±0.8 40.4 ±0.2 37.2 ±0.1 33.9 ±0.1 28.4 ±0.1 23.03 48.6 ±0.2 55.8 ±0.2 58.7 ±0.2 61.7 ±0.2 99.6 ±0.9 112.0 ±1.0 125.0 ±1.0 130.0 ±1.5 136.4 ±2.0 140.2 ±3.0 145.5 ±4.0 Cretaceous Paleogene Neogene System Period Eonothem Eon Erathem Era Stage Age Age Ma GSSP Epoch Series Eonothem Eon Erathem Era System Stage Age Age Ma GSSP Epoch Series Period Eonothem Eon Erathem Era Age Ma GSSP GSSA System Period Eonothem Eon Era Sub-Era Stage Age Age Ma GSSP Epoch Series Period 3.600 Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Pliocene Miocene Pleistocene Upper Lower Holocene 0.0118 INTERNATIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC CHART International Commission on Stratigraphy 421.3 ±2.6 426.2 ±2.4 Tremadocian Darriwilian Hirnantian Paibian Upper Middle Lower Series 3 Stage 3 Stage 2 Stage 1 Stage 5 Drumian Stage 7 Stage 9 Stage 10 Floian Stage 3 Sandbian Katian Stage 4 Series 2 Series 1 Furongian Cambrian Ordovician ~ 503.0 * ~ 506.5 * ~ 510.0 * ~ 517.0 * ~ 521.0 * ~ 534.6 * 460.9 ±1.6 471.8 ±1.6 488.3 ±1.7 ~ 492.0 * ~ 496.0 * 501.0 ±2.0 542.0 ±1.0 455.8 ±1.6 445.6 ±1.5 468.1 ±1.6 478.6 ±1.7 Lower limit is not defined Silurian Quaternary*: Formal chronostratigraphic unit sensu joint ICS-INQUA taskforce (2005) and ICS. Tertiary*: Informal chronostratigraphic unit sensu Aubry et al. (2005, Episodes 28/2). Erathem System 542 359.2 ±2.5 145.5 ±4.0 Quaternary * ICS Copyright © 2006 International Commission on Stratigraphy Subdivisions of the global geologic record are formally defined by their lower boundary. Each unit of the Phanerozoic (~542 Ma to Present) and the base of Ediacaran are defined by a basal Global Standard Section and Point (GSSP ), whereas Precambrian units are formally subdivided by absolute age (Global Standard Stratigraphic Age, GSSA). Details of each GSSP are posted on the ICS website (www.stratigraphy.org). International chronostratigraphic units, rank, names and formal status are approved by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) and ratified by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). Numerical ages of the unit boundaries in the Phanerozoic are subject to revision. Some stages within the Ordovician and Cambrian will be formally named upon international agreement on their GSSP limits. Most sub-Series boundaries (e.g., Middle and Upper Aptian) are not formally defined. Colors are according to the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (www.cgmw.org). The listed numerical ages are from 'A Geologic Time Scale 2004', by F.M. Gradstein, J.G. Ogg, A.G. Smith, et al. (2004; Cambridge University Press). This chart was drafted by Gabi Ogg. Intra Cambrian unit ages with * are informal, and awaiting ratified defnitions. Tertiary*