Yönetim Esasları - II Understanding People Attitudes, Perception, and Learning © Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 1© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 2 Objectives 1. An understanding of employee workplace attitudes 2. Insights into how to change employee attitudes 3. An appreciation of the impact of employee perceptions on employee behaviors 4. Knowledge of employee perceptions of procedural justice 5. An understanding that adult learners are different from younger students© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 3 What Are Attitudes? An attitude is a predisposition to react to a situation, person, or concept with a particular response. This response can be either positive or negative. Attitudes have three primary components: Cognitive —information or beliefs about a particular person or ? object Affective —a positive or negative feeling about a particular person ? or object Behavioral —an intent or desire to behave in a certain way toward ? a particular person or object© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 4 What Are Attitudes? An individual ’ s attitudes are a result of the beliefs and values held by the individual. Beliefs are accepted facts and truths about an object or person that have been gained from either direct experience or secondary source. Values are the levels of worth placed by an individual on various factors in the environment. In the workplace such factors as compensation, recognition, and status are often regarded as common values.© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 5 What Are Attitudes?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 6 What Are Attitudes? Theory of Reasoned Action According to the model, when a behavior is matter of choice, the best predictor of the behavior is the person ’ s intention to perform it. Intention is best predicted from two factors: Person ’ s attitude toward performing the behavior ? Person ’ s subjective norm —the perception that he or she is ? expected by peers or others to perform a certain behavior© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 7 What Are Attitudes?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 8 What Are Attitudes? Employee Attitudes There are three theories concerning the primary determinations of employee attitudes: Human Resource Approach: it focuses on the design of the job ? and stresses such factors as task design, work autonomy, and level of challenge. Social Influence Approach: it considers that employees ’ attitudes ? toward their jobs are affected by the attitudes or beliefs of their peers. Dispositional Approach: it stresses the personal characteristics ? that are fairly stable over time. People are generally predisposed to like or dislike both the overall quality of their jobs such as work itself, supervision, and compensation and work rules.© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 9 What Are Attitudes?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 10 What Are Attitudes? Attitude Surveys (continued) ? Changing Attitudes ? Behaviors and attitudes can best be predicted by knowing: 1. A person ’ s beliefs 2. The social norms that influence a person ’ s intentions Managers may strive to change attitudes, intentions, and behaviors by ? changing workplace situations such as changing compensation, job design, and work hours. Causes of behavior problems: ? 1. Lack of Skills 2. Lack of Positive Attitude 3. Rule Breaking 4. Personal Problems© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 11 What Are Attitudes? Lack of skills —skills-deficiency problem can be remedied in one of ? three ways: (a) train the employee to remove the skill deficiency ? (b) transfer the employee to a job that better uses his or her ? current skills (c) terminate the employee. ?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 12 What Are Attitudes? Lack of positive attitude —determine what the employee needs ? and offer it a s a reward for good performance. Rule breaking —absent or late to work without good reason, ? violating dress codes, or refusing to follow safety procedures. Applying positive discipline that is providing a written policy of expected behaviors and a written program detailing progressive disciplinary steps (first offence —oral warning, second offence —written warning, third offence —suspension, fourth offence —termination).© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 13 What Are Attitudes? Personal problems —troubled employee may suffer from variety of ? problems such as emotional illness, financial crisis, alcohol or drug dependency, chronic physical problems or family unrest.© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 14 Perception Perception is the psychological process of selecting stimuli, ? organizing data into recognizable patterns, and interpreting the resulting information. The perceptual process is the series of actions that individuals ? follow in order to select, organize, and interpret stimuli from the environment.© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 15 Perception© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 16 Attribution Attribution is the process by which people interpret the behavior of ? others by assigning to it motives or causes. For example, if an employee is routinely late to work, a manager ? might try to determine the cause of the behavior. Is it lack of motivation or lack of ability? Is it some personal factor or a situational factor such as the way the job is structured or scheduled?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 17 Attribution People generally consider three factors when making attributions: ? Consensus—Person being observed behaves in a manner consistent with the behavior of his or her peers. Consistency—Person being observed behaves consistently or in a similar fashion when confronted on other occasions with the same or similar situations. Distinctiveness —Person being observed behave consistently when faced with different situations. © Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 18 Perception Perceptual Distortions ? Stereotypes ? Halo Effect ? Projection ? Self-Serving Bias and Attribution Error ? Selective Perception ? Recency ?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 19 Learning Operant Learning ? Operant conditioning Behavior is a function of its consequences Cognitive Learning ? Assumes people have a high capacity to act in a purposeful manner Choose behaviors that will enable them to achieve long-run goals© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 20 Learning Cognitive Learning (continued) ? Goal-Setting Strategies ? Advantages: 1. Directed Behavior 2. Challenges 3. Resource Allocation 4. Structure Goal Setting and Problem Solving ? Learning Strategies ? Reinforcement Strategy ? 1. Positive Reinforcement 2. Avoidance Strategy 3. Escape Strategy 4. Punishment Strategy© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 21 ? Questions